Research

 

You will find a complete range of our monographs, muti-authored and edited works including peer-reviewed, original scholarly research across the social sciences and aligned disciplines. We publish long and short form research and you can browse the complete Bristol University Press and Policy Press archive of over 1,500 titles.

Policy Press also publishes policy reviews and polemic work which aim to challenge policy and practice in certain fields. These books have a practitioner in mind and are practical, accessible in style, as well as being academically sound and referenced.
 

Books: Research

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The book offers a theory of trafficking and modern slavery with implications for policy through an analysis of evidence, data, and law. Despite economic development, modern slavery persists all around the world. The book challenges the current fragmentation of theory and develops a synthesis of the root causes of trafficking chains. Trafficking concerns not only situations of vulnerability but their exploitation driven by profit-taking. The policy solution is not merely to treat the issue as one of crime but also concerns the regulation of the economy, better welfare, and social protections. Although data is incomplete, methods are improving to indicate its scale and distribution. Traditional assumptions of nation-state sovereignty are challenged by the significance of international law historically. Going beyond the polarization of the debates on sexual exploitation in the sex trade, the book offers an original empirical analysis that shows the importance of a focus on profit-taking. Although individual experience matters, the root causes of trafficking/modern slavery lie in intersecting regimes of inequality of gender regimes, capitalism, and the legacies of colonialism. The book shows the importance of coercion and theorizing society as a complex system.

Open access
Modern Slavery in Society

Available Open Access digitally under CC-BY-NC-ND licence.

This book offers a theory of trafficking and modern slavery with implications for policy. Despite economic development, modern slavery persists all around the world. The issue is not only one of crime but the regulation of the economy, better welfare and social protections.

Going beyond polarised debates on the sex trade, an original empirical analysis shows the importance of profit-taking. Although individual experience matters, the root causes lie in intersecting regimes of inequality of gender regimes, capitalism, and the legacies of colonialism. This book shows the importance of coercion and the societal complexities that perpetuate modern slavery.

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This chapter identifies the factors that contribute to the persistence of smuggling and trafficking in Southern Europe: restrictive migration policies, market forces aimed at workplace flexibility and deregulation, and organized crime. Restrictive migration policies fuel migrant smuggling and are the cause due to the rigid line between permission to enter for work and permanence in the country, and the institutionalization of irregularity. Beyond political proclamations against irregular immigration, the social vulnerability of migrants is salutary to an economic system increasingly based on ‘just in time’ production, satisfying the up-and-down requests of consumer markets. Globalization has gone hand in hand with the expansion of smuggling and trafficking. Worldwide trafficking profits in the last two decades have increased fivefold. Criminal groups have become increasingly transnational and more able to manage the recruitment, transportation and insertion of migrants into the sex and labour markets of Southern Europe.

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This chapter introduces the context of the Southern European countries, research design, and the distinction between smuggling and trafficking. Spain, Italy and Greece are destination countries for migrants, with large, informal economies and amnesties that enable irregular migrants to change their illegal status. Within these constraints, the book asks: What is the difference between smuggling and trafficking? What is their current extent in Southern Europe? What organizational methods underly smuggling and trafficking? What economic and institutional factors drive these phenomena? To answer these, the book refers to qualitative and quantitative sources on smuggling and trafficking. Smuggling concerns migrant arrivals in a new country, while trafficking can occur within the victim’s country. The relationship between migrants and smugglers ends when the foreign country is reached, while trafficked people continue to be exploited. Smugglers resort to violence to avoid interception by law enforcement, and traffickers use violence systematically to dominate their victims.

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This chapter analyses landed migrants in Spain, Italy and Greece, focusing on organizational models of smuggling and counter-migration policies. The analysis reveals the prices paid by migrants, and the routes, hubs and systems of smuggling organizations. Smugglers along western and eastern routes are organized as networks of networks and single networks. The analysis shows that smugglers cooperate with each other, without apparent conflict. Along the central route towards Libya, hierarchical smuggling groups enjoyed an oligopolistic position after the fall of Gaddafi, while convergent interests among Fezzan and north Libyan smugglers recently came to an end. The 2017 agreement between Libya and Italy led smugglers and militia on Libya’s north coast to move from smuggling to countering irregular migration thanks to financial aid from Italy and the EU. However, the main effect of migration policies has been to change and expand smuggling routes without stopping the flows towards Spain, Italy and Greece.

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Criminal Actors, Dynamics and Migration Policies
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This book provides a contemporary overview of migrant smuggling and trafficking in Southern Europe, focusing on Spain, Italy and Greece. It considers how criminal players increase such activity and investigates institutional and structural constraints to legal migration in Southern Europe.

Migrant workers satisfy the need for a cheap workforce to sustain Southern Europe’s economy, and laws to counter irregular migration alter smuggling routes and expose migrants to forms of exploitation upon reaching their destination. Revealing institutional, economic and criminal factors, the book explains the persistence of migrant smuggling and trafficking.

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This chapter analyses theoretical frameworks of migrant smuggling. The business model considers the actors to be criminal players, state and migrants, where each takes decisions according to losses and benefits. The social model claims that migrant smuggling occurs within the migrants’ diaspora among co-nationals. Would-be migrants rely on mediators and smugglers within their own migratory network of compatriots. So, trust goes far beyond a simple economic calculation as established by the business model perspective. But what happens when the migratory routes become longer and migrants have contact with several smugglers along different borders? Considering critical points related to both the business and social models, the chapter proposes a new theoretical perspective on the analytical distinction between hierarchical and network criminal organizations. Smuggler organizations are broken down into hierarchical groups, networks of networks, and single networks. The first tend to operate as mafia-like organizations and the others as business enterprises.

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This chapter deals with the different forms of migrant trafficking in Southern European countries. It starts by pointing out the great discrepancy between estimates of trafficked people and official evidence, both worldwide and in the EU, with more specific reference to Spain, Italy and Greece. It follows an analysis of sexual-exploitation trafficking, considering the main changes that have occurred in each national sex market over the last three decades. It follows the recruitment, transportation and placement of victims into the new country, and the characteristics of the criminal organizations, both national and foreign, involved in this activity. The final part addresses the analysis of trafficking and the severe exploitation of migrants in the agriculture and textile sectors to highlight how the criminal dynamics and economic needs in Spain, Italy and Greece underlie labour exploitation.

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Studies show that the number of illegal wolf theriocides in Poland is significant and increasing. According to research, between 2002 and 2020 there were 91 cases of killings. On the other hand, between 1922 and 2022 we were able to identify only nine rulings related to the wolf crimes. It should be noticed that this situation is not justified by the official state approach to killing wolves in Poland. These animals have been a strictly protected species ever since 1998 and since then there has been no issuing of state licences for general population reduction. The chapter focuses on the social and legal factors influencing the effectiveness of combating the illegal killing of wolves in Poland. Our main argument is that these factors are, at the same time, the greatest problems for law enforcement authorities to effectively counteract the illegal wolf theriocides, especially when it comes to not only anthropogenic but also financial approaches in criminal law.

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This chapter contributes to the debate on CITES with a reflection on its adaptability to the new vision adopted by its States Parties, which calls to ‘[c]onserve biodiversity and contribute to its sustainable use by ensuring that no species of wild fauna or flora is or remains subject to unsustainable exploitation through international trade’. Attempts to update CITES have been the source of interesting reforms in Spain, including the restructuring of CITES authorities and the adoption of a national plan that developed the EU Action Plan on Wildlife Trafficking. CITES implementation and case law in Spain shows that it is necessary to adapt to the new challenges posed by wildlife trafficking in the digital world. Thus, the introduction of digital permits and means of traceability will facilitate law enforcement and international cooperation. Spain has also adopted an exemplary practice regarding the destination of seized live animals, based on recovery and reintroduction that goes beyond CITES recommendations.

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