This chapter provides a reflection on the book collection. The diversity of approaches to understanding the landscapes and spatialities of hate in the chapters are examined, highlighting the different sub-disciplinary perspectives and variety of spatial and temporal contexts. The chapter then identifies three key themes for the ongoing study of hate: the potential of an intersectional approach to appreciate the complexity, multi-layered and intricate nature of hate experienced by individuals; considering the relational nature of hate and hate crime, which can help to understand the diverse motivations of discriminatory conduct, and the social groups, individuals, places and events, where hate emerges; and providing the space and time to consider the presence and importance of the emotional and affective significance of hate. The chapter concludes by considering the ethical and methodological challenges presented when being attentive to the intersectional, relational, and emotional aspects of hate.
This chapter explores connections between visibility and situated vulnerability for those targeted on the basis of identities of ‘race’ and faith, sexuality, transgender and disability. The chapter argues that who or what becomes hyper-visible and subject to the harms of hate is produced by more than representational visibility or markers of embodied difference. Using the concept of the social materiality of space, the chapter examines how hyper-visibility is produced through the material and symbolic association of particular sites with marginalized groups. Through examples of the mosque, the gay scene and the home, the chapter considers the ways in which material spaces stand in for, are associated with and produce hyper-visible bodies. The chapter also reflects on efforts to navigate and contest harms of hate, including re-working meanings associated with particular material environments.
This chapter explores the centrality of rhetoric in the formation of landscapes of hate by examining the application of the label ‘inner city’. A discourse analysis of British newspapers and policy documents in the 1980s is undertaken to show how applying the term ‘inner city’ labelled Toxteth, in Liverpool, UK, giving it a specific, racialized, classed, stigmatized and ‘othered’ identity; and that this was a deliberate rhetorical and ideological act making Toxteth the ‘poster child’ of the 1980s ‘inner city problem’ and the testing ground for related solutions. The chapter’s historical study of Toxteth represents a paradigmatic case from which we can learn and apply the findings to contemporary debates regarding the invention of spatial stigma and hate, and the later attempts to ‘unhate’ areas through white middle-class gentrification and privatization.
This chapter examines the contours of hate within neoliberal capitalism from a critical hate studies perspective which sheds light on the breadth of hate harms that are both everyday and extreme. Drawing on two distinct case studies with Gypsies and Travellers and trans people the chapter evidences the harms of hate that imbue these communities’ lived experience. The chapter also addresses the transitory nature of culture and community within marginalized communities as they negotiate the social world according to the norms of neoliberal capitalism: traversing multiple and intersectional identities in order to be recognized. A great deal of this negotiation requires negation of identity. The mobility that Gypsies and Travellers and trans people use to navigate neoliberalism, as well as their use of particular places, provides victims of hate with a sense of safety or escape, whereas in reality it exacerbates ontological insecurity and thus the harms of hate.
This chapter critiques the move towards the inclusion of misogyny in hate crime legislation and practice. The chapter argues that classifying the harassment and violence that women and girls experience as hate distracts attention from the multiple and complex experiences of violence, hostility and exclusion that women experience in society. The chapter responds to the key claims in feminist campaigns supporting the change, which include both substantive benefits and conceptual purposes of misogyny hate crime. The chapter concludes by proposing a public health approach to violence against women and girls, including improved data gathering, and non-criminal justice system responses, such as education and capacity-building prevention initiatives.
This chapter focuses on the experiences and impacts of both active and passive hostility and hate against disabled people when using public transport, in particular buses. Significantly, disabled people often have no alternative to using public transport. The chapter examines the opportunism of hostility and hate, techniques of collaboration and justification, and why bystanders tend not to intervene. The chapter draws on evidence from a study of experiences of disabled people of verbal abuse and physical harassment on public transport in the UK. Victims’ voices are brought to the fore highlighting the ordinariness of hate crime, the expectation of victims and the acceptance of onlookers. The chapter concludes with potential solutions to reducing acts of hostility, including bus design, training for staff, support for reporting of incidents and education.
This book collection presents a distinctive spatial interpretation of ‘hate’, a term increasingly dominant in policy and academic study to describe prejudice and discrimination, and harassment and violence, towards members of marginalized social groups. Although the geographies of hate incidents have been documented, there has been limited study of the role of place and space in the construction, circulation and lived experience of hateful actions. This collection seeks to broaden the examination of hate from a commonly singular focus on hate crime, to consider the social and relational, spatial and structural, contexts and situations, through which hate is produced, experienced and responded to. The contributors are drawn from across a range of disciplines, including geography, criminology, sociology and youth work. They explore hate through a range of lenses, including systemic, institutional, discursive, criminal/legal, material, atmospheric and emotional. Contributors consider dimensions of hate in relation to specific and intersectional communities including, ‘race’ and religion, sexuality, gender and transgender identities, Gypsy and Traveller identities, disability and social class. The chapters in the collection are organized into three themes, to address different aspects of the landscapes of hate: considering and critiquing the concept of ‘hate’; experiences of hate in a range of contexts and everyday spaces; and different responses to hate.
This chapter cites evidence from Ireland to examine how heteroactivists try to challenge references to hate in accounts of their activities by casting it as supporting moral values and, indeed, a sign of their love. The chapter first sets out the key tenets of heteroactivist ideologies and practices. Then, drawing on a participant observations and newsletter emails, the chapter explores how heteroactivists frame objections to sexual and gender equalities while pushing against or working to avoid accusations of ‘hate speech’. The chapter shows how they frame their arguments as motivated by love and related representations of themselves and those who agree with them as innocent citizens subject to the dangers of both formal sanctions and the social and political consequences of being associated with and perpetuating hate speech. It finishes by suggesting considerations ‘beyond opposition’.
Providing a much-needed perspective on exclusion and discrimination, this book offers a distinct geographical approach to the topic of hate studies.
Of interest to academics and students of human geography, criminology, sociology and beyond, the book highlights enduring, diverse and uneven experiences of hate in contemporary society. The collection explores the intersecting experiences of those targeted on the basis of assumed and historically marginalised identities.
It illustrates the role of specific spaces and places in shaping hate, why space matters for how hate is encountered and the importance of space in challenging cultures of hate. This analysis of who is able to use or abuse space offers a novel insight into discourses of hate and lived experiences of victimisation.
This chapter reports on the findings from an online survey of female students administered at a university in the north of England exploring perceptions of safety and experiences of interpersonal violence, predominantly in public spaces. The chapter considers how landscapes of (un)safety feature in female students’ experiences of, and strategies to avoid, predominantly sexual harassment, abuse and violence. While certain places and spaces within the urban landscape are regarded as ‘safe’ and ‘unsafe’, their status as such is contingent. Material characteristics of urban landscapes are brought together with social, emotional and affective aspects, to form ‘atmospheres’. The chapter explores how female students recognize, experience and negotiate these hostile yet ‘ambivalent’ and potentially shifting emotional and material environments and atmospheres of university life. The chapter further argues that these atmospheres are shaped by broader processes of neoliberal urbanism.