This book is based on a study of schools governance, specifically of the academisation of English schools and its logical and organisational consequences such as the growth of MATs. It shows that the focus of Education Policy on progressively narrower student outcomes has driven a formerly open and local basis for governance to one increasingly conducted privately and behind closed doors. Increasing centralisation of government, allied with the deliberate reduction of local government, has led to governance arrangements conducted more and more remotely. The chaotic muddle and chaos of organisations between schools and central government makes the realisation of new policies extremely difficult and this had led gradually to the inability of both officials and politicians to recognise any need for change. This has been compounded by their respective professional (and social) backgrounds and these overall weaknesses are reflected elsewhere in the public service and in the private sector. Policy has become empty, futile and immersed in only one way of seeing the world. It is argued, in addition to ensuring their students succeed and progress, that schools need to have the capacity to work much more closely with their communities to help them succeed. There needs to be a more open and democratic approach to governance matters, building on good practice. Two illustrative case studies suggest what this might mean. Given current events in UK government, an addition to the Nolan principles is suggested and it is argued that different Education governance structures will need to emerge in time.
ADCS (Association of Directors of Children’s Services) (2013) The Missing Link: The Evolving Role of the Local Authority in School Improvement, London: ADCS, available at https://adcs.org.uk/assets/documentation/The_Missing_Link_the_evolving_role_of_the_local_authority_in_education_foreword.pdf
Allen, G. (2011a) Early Intervention: The Next Steps, London: HMG, available at https://assets.publishing.service.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/284086/early-intervention-next-steps2.pdf
Allen, G. (2011b) Early Intervention: Smart Investment, Massive Savings, London: HMG, available at https://assets.publishing.service.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/61012/earlyintervention-smartinvestment.pdf
Ball, S. (2007) Education PLC, Abingdon: Routledge.
Ball, S. (2012) Global Education Inc: New Policy Networks and the Neo-liberal Imaginary, Abingdon: Routledge.
Ball, S. (2018) ‘The tragedy of state education in England: Reluctance, compromise and muddle – a system in disarray,’ Journal of the British Academy 6: 2017–238, https://doi.org/10.5871/jba/006.207
Ball, S. and Junemann, C. (2012) Networks, New Governance and Education, Bristol: Policy Press.
Ball, S., Maguire, M. and Braun, A. (2012) How Schools Do Policy: Policy Enactment in Secondary Schools, Abingdon: Routledge.
Barber, M. (2008) Instruction to Deliver :Fighting to Transform Britain’s Public Services, London, Methuen.
Barber, M. (2015) How to Run a Government so That Citizens Benefit and Taxpayers Don’t Go Crazy, London: Allen Lane.
Belger, T. (2021) Government ‘abdicating responsibility’ to lead the recovery, Schools Week, 17 November.
Belger, T. (2022) Forced academy conversions down to one a month, Schools Week, 10 January.
BERA (British Educational Research Association) (2015) Fair and Equal Education: An Evidence-Based Policy Manifesto That Respects Children and Young People, London: BERA.
BESA (2021) Key UK Education Statistics, available at https://www.besa.org.uk/key-uk-education-statistics/
Bishop, M. and Green, M. (2008) Philanthrocapitalism: How Giving Can Save the World, London: Bloomsbury.
Blakely, G. (2019) Stolen: How to Save the World from Financialisation, London: Repeater Books.
Bolton, T. and Hildreth, P. (2013) Mid-sized Cities: Their Role in England’s Economy, London: Centre for Cities, available at https://www.centreforcities.org/wp-content/uploads/2014/08/13-06-18-Mid-Sized-Cities.pdf
Booth, S. (2021) Regional schools commissioners: 6 key findings from the Education Select Committee, Schools Week, 13 April.
Bourdieu, P. and Passeron, J.-C. (2000 ) Reproduction in Education, Society and Culture (2nd edn), London: Sage Publications.
Bourquin, P., Joyce, R. and Norris Keiller, A. (2020) Living Standards, Poverty and Inequality in the UK: 2020, London: IFS, available at https://www.ifs.org.uk/publications/14901
Brewer, M., Corlett, A., Handscomb, A. and Tomlinson, D. (2021) The Living Standards Outlook, London: The Resolution.
British Academy (2021a) Shaping the COVID Decade: Addressing the Long-term Societal Impacts of COVID-19, London: The British Academy.
British Academy (2021b) The COVID decade: Understanding the Long-term Societal Impacts of COVID-19, The British Academy, London.
Bubb, S., Crossley-Holland, J., Cordiner, J., Cousin, S. and Earley, P. (2019) Understanding the Middle Tier. Comparative Costs of Academy and LA-Maintained School Systems, London: Sarah Bubb Associates.
Cabinet Office (2011) Opening Doors, Breaking Barriers: A Strategy for Social Mobility, London: Cabinet Office.
Calvert, J. and Arbuthnott, G. (2021) Failures of State: The Inside Story of Britain’s Battle with Coronavirus, London: Mudlark.
Cameron, D. (2010) We Will Make Government Accountable to the People, speech made to Senior Civil Servants, 8 July, available at https://conservative-speeches.sayit.mysociety.org/speech/601460
Cameron, D. (2015) Opportunity, a speech given to Conservative Party Conference, London: Conservative Party, available at https://www.gov.uk/government/speeches/pm-speech-on-opportunity
Carey, J. (1992) The Intellectuals and the Masses: Pride and Prejudice among the Literary Intelligentsia 1880–1939, London: Faber and Faber.
Carter, D. with McInerney, L. (2020) Leading Academy Trusts: Why Some Fail but Most Don’t, Woodbridge: John Catt Educational Ltd.
Castells, M. (2015) Networks of Outrage and Hope: Social Movements in the Internet Age (2nd edn), London: Polity Press.
Cattan, S., Farquharson, C., Krutikova, S., Phimister, A., Salisbury, A. and Sevilla, A. (2021) Inequalities in Responses to School Closures over the Course of the First COVID-19 Lockdown, London: Institute for Fiscal Studies.
Civil Service Human Resources (nd) Civil Service Competency Framework 2012 – 2017, available at https://assets.publishing.service.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/436073/cscf_fulla4potrait_2013-2017_v2d.pdf
Clyne, R. (2022) Civil Service Cuts Will Force Ministers to Choose between Painful Options, London: Institute for Government, available at https://www.instituteforgovernment.org.uk/blog/civil-service-cuts-will-force-ministers
Coffield, F. and Williamson, B. (2012) From Exam Factories to Communities of Discovery: The Democratic Route, London: Institute of Education Press.
Coldron, J., Crawford, M., Jones, S. and Simkins, T. (2014) ‘The restructuring of schooling in England: The responses of well-positioned headteachers’, Education Management, Administration and Leadership 42(3): 387–403.
Conservative and Unionist Party (2019) Get Brexit Done. Unleash Britain’s Potential, London: Conservative and Unionist Party, available at https://assets-global.website-files.com/5da42e2cae7ebd3f8bde353c/5dda924905da587992a064ba_Conservative%202019%20Manifesto.pdf
Courtney, S. and McGinty, R. (2020) System leadership as depoliticisation: Reconceptualising educational leadership in a new Multi-Academy Trust, Education Management and Leadershiphttps://doi.org/10.1177/1741143220962101
Cousin, S. and Crossley-Holland, J. (2021) Developing a Locality Model for English Schools, London: AEC Trust/BELMAS, available at https://www.belmas.org.uk/write/MediaUploads/Locality_Model_Summary_Report_PROOF_6-1.pdf
Davis, A. (2018) Reckless Opportunists: Elites at the End of the Establishment, Manchester: Manchester University Press.
Deloitte (2021) The State of the State 2020–21: Government in the Pandemic and Beyond, Deloitte, available at https://www2.deloitte.com/content/dam/Deloitte/uk/Documents/public-sector/deloitte-uk-state-of-the-state-2020.pdf
de Tocqeville, A. (1994) Democracy in America, London: David Campbell Publishers Ltd.
DfE (Department for Education) (1995) Improving Schools: Letter to Chief Education Officers, London DfE.
DfE (2011) The Importance of Teaching, London: DfE.
DfE (2016) Education Excellence Everywhere, London: DfE.
DfE (2017) Unlocking Talent, Fulfilling Potential: A Plan for Improving Social Mobility through Education, London: DfE.
DfE (2019a) RSW SW Priorities 2018/19, Internal document.
DfE (2019b) Governance Handbook: For Academies, Multi-academy Trusts and Maintained Schools, London: DfE.
DfE (2020b) Schools, Pupils and Their Characteristics, Academic Year 2019/20, London: DfE, available at https://explore-education-statistics.service.gov.uk/find-statistics/school-pupils-and-their-characteristics
DfE (2020c) Secondary Accountability Measures: Guide for Maintained Secondary Schools, Academies and Free Schools, London: DfE, available at https://assets.publishing.service.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/872997/Secondary_accountability_measures_guidance_February_2020_3.pdf
DfE (2020d) Teaching Schools Hubs, London: DfE, available at https://www.gov.uk/guidance/teaching-school-hubs
DfE (2022a) Opportunity for All: Strong Schools with Great Teachers for Your Child, London: DfE, available at https://assets.publishing.service.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/1063602/Opportunity_for_all_strong_schools_with_great_teachers_for_your_child__print_version_.pdf
DfE (2022b) The Case for a Fully Trust-led System, London: DfE, available at https://www.gov.uk/official-documents
DfE (2022c) Implementing Schools System Reform in 2023/24, London: DfE, available at https://assets.publishing.service.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/1079643/SWP_System_Reform_Next_Steps.pdf
DfEE (Department for Education and Employment) (1997) Excellence in Schools, A White Paper, London: The Stationery Office.
DfEE (1999) Excellence in Cities, London: The Stationery Office.
DES (Department for Education and Skills) ( 2004 ) A New Relationship with Schools, London : DES and Ofsted .
DHSC (Department of Health and Social Care) (2021) Working Together to Improve Health and Social Care for All, London: DHSC, available at https://www.gov.uk/government/publications/working-together-to-improve-health-and-social-care-for-all
Dickens, J., Booth, S. and Carr, J. (2020) CEO pay 2019: Fewer than 1 in 5 reduces salaries despite government warning, Schools Week, 13 March.
Dorling, D. (2015) Injustice: Why Social Inequality Still Persists, Bristol: Policy Press.
Dorling, D. (2017) The Equality Effect. Improving Life for Everyone, Oxford: New Internationalist Publications Ltd.
Dorling, D. (2018) Peak Inequality – Britain’s Ticking Timebomb, Bristol: Policy Press.
Easton, C., McCrone, T., Smith, R., Harland, J. and Sims, D. (2018) Implementation of Opportunity Areas: An Independent Evaluation, Slough: NfER, available at https://www.nfer.ac.uk/implementation-of-opportunity-areas-an-independent-evaluation/
Edwards, M. (2004) Civil Society, Cambridge: Polity Press.
Exworthy, M. and Halford, S. (Eds) (1999) Professionals and the New Managerialism in the Public Sector, Maidenhead: Open University Press.
Ferrell, J. (2018) Drift: Illicit Mobility and Uncertain Knowledge, Oakland, CA: University of California.
Foucault, M. (2004) The Birth of Biopolitics – Lectures at the College de France 1978–1979, New York: Palgrave Macmillan.
Friedman, S. and Laurison, D. (2019) The Class Ceiling. Why It Pays to Be Privileged, Bristol: Policy Press.
Fullan, M. (1993) Change Forces: Probing the Depths of Education Reform, London: The Falmer Press.
Fullan, M. (1999) Change Forces the Sequel, London: Falmer Press.
Fullan, M. (2003) Change Forces with a Vengeance, London: Routledge Farmer.
Gale, T. (2003) ‘Realising policy: The who and how of policy production’, Discourse: Studies in the Cultural Politics of Education 24(1): 51–65.
Gibton, D. (2016) Researching Education Policy, Public Policy, and Policymakers: Qualitative Methods and Ethical Issues, Abingdon: Routledge.
Giddens, A. (1992) Modernity and Self-Identity. Self and Society in the late Modern Age, Cambridge: Polity Press.
Gingrich, J. (2011) Making Markets in the Welfare State. The Politics of Varying Market Reforms, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Glennerster, H. (2010) Financing the UK’s Welfare States. London: 2020 Public Services Trust at the RSA.
Goldthorpe, J. (2007) On Sociology Second Edition. Volume Two – Illustration and Retrospect, Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.
Goldthorpe, J. (2016) Social class mobility in modern Britain: Changing structure, constant process, Journal of the British Academy 4: 89–111, DOI 10.5871/jba/004.089
GPA (Government Property Agency) (2021) The Growing Network of Government Hubs, available at https://assets.publishing.service.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/979732/The_Government_Hub_Network_Brochure__V2_April_2021_.pdf
Graeber, D. (2013) The Democracy Project: A History. A Crisis .A Movement, London: Penguin Books.
Grayling, A.C. (2017) Democracy and Its Crisis, London: Oneworld Publications.
Greany, T. (2020) Place-based governance and leadership in decentralised school systems: Evidence from England, Journal of Education Policy https://doi.org/10.1080/02680939.2020.1792554
Greany, T. and Higham, R. (2018) Hierarchy, Markets and Networks, London: UCL Institute of Education Press.
Haberman, M. (1991) ‘The pedagogy of poverty versus good teaching’, Phu Delta Kappan 73(4): 290–294.
Hambleton, R. (2020) Cities and Communities Beyond Covid-19: How Local Leadership Can Change Our Future for the Better, Bristol: Bristol University Press.
Handscomb, K., Henehan, K. and Try, L. (2021) The Living Standards Audit, 2021, London: The Resolution.
Hargreaves, A. (1994) Teaching in the Knowledge Society: Education in the Age of insecurity, Buckingham: Open University Press.
Hargreaves, D. (2012) A Self-Improving Schools System: Towards Maturity, London: NCSL.
Harris, J. (1994) Private Lives, Public Spirit: Britain 1870–1914, London: Penguin Books.
Hatcher, R. (2014) ‘Local authorities and the school system: the new authority school partnerships’, Education, Management and Leadership 42(3): 355–371.
Hinds, D. (2018) Education Secretary to Set Out Vision for ‘Clearer’ School System, Government press release, 4 May, available at GOV.UK.
House of Commons Committee of Public Accounts (2015) School Oversight and Intervention, London: Stationery Office Ltd, available at https://publications.parliament.uk/pa/cm201415/cmselect/cmpubacc/735/73502.htm
House of Commons Committee of Public Accounts (2020) Specialist Skills in the Civil Service, London: House of Commons, available at https://publications.parliament.uk/pa/cm5801/cmselect/cmpubacc/686/686.pdf
House of Commons Foreign Affairs Select Committee (2022) Missing in Action: UK Leadership and the Withdrawal from Afghanistan, London: House of Commons, available at https://committees.parliament.uk/publications/22344/documents/165210/default/
House of Commons Health and Social Care, and Science and Technology Committees (2021) Coronavirus: Lessons Learned to Date, London: The House of Commons, available at https://committees.parliament.uk/publications/7497/documents/78688/default/
Hughes, M., Greenhough, P., Ching Yee, W. and Andrews, J. (2010) The daily transition between home and school, in Ecclestone et al (Eds), p16–31. Abingdon: Routledge.
Hutchison, J., Bonetti, S., Crenna-Jennings, W. and Akhal, A. (2019) Education in England: Annual Report 2019, London: Education Policy Institute with the Fair Education Alliance.
Hutchison, J., Reader, M. and Akhal, A. (2020) Education In England: Annual Report 2020, London: Education Policy Institute with the Fair Education Alliance and Unbound.
IFS (Institute for Fiscal Studies) (2022) Inflation for Poorest Households Likely to Increase Even Faster Than for the Richest, and Could Hit 14% in October, Press release, available at https://ifs.org.uk/publications/16065
IoG (Institute of Government) (2022) Neighbourhood Services under Strain. How a Decade of Cuts and Rising Demand for Social Care Affected Local Services, London: Institute of Government, available at file:///G:/Towards%20a%20final%20draft/IoG%202022%20neighbourhood-services-under-strain.pdf
IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change) (2021) AR6 Climate Change 2021: The Physical Science Basis, available at https://www.ipcc.ch/report/ar6/wg1/
ISC (Industrial Strategy Council) (2021) Annual Report, London: Industry Strategy Council, available at https://industrialstrategycouncil.org/sites/default/files/attachments/ISC%20Annual%20Report%202021.pdf
Jackson, B. and Marsden, D. (1962) Education and Working Class, Harmondsworth: Penguin Books.
James, C., Brammer, S., Connolly, M., Fertig, M., James, J. and Jones, J. (2010) The ‘hidden givers’: a study of school governing bodies in England, Reading: CfBT Education Trust.
Joseph Rowntree Foundation (2020) Destitution in the UK, York: Joseph Rowntree Foundation.
Joyce, R. and Xu, X. (2019) Inequalities in the Twenty-first Century: Introducing the IFS Deaton Review, London: Institute for Fiscal Studies/Nuffield Foundation.
Kerr, K., Dyson, A. and Raffo, C. (2014) Education, Disadvantage and Place: Making the Local Matter, Bristol: Policy Press.
Kirby, P. (2016) Leading People 2016: The Educational Backgrounds of the UK Professional Elite, London: The Sutton Trust.
Krastev, I. (2020) Is It Tomorrow Yet? Paradoxes of the Pandemic, London: Allen Lane.
Labour Party (2019) It’s Time for Real Change. The Labour Party Manifesto 2019, London: Labour Party.
Lawn, M. (2013) ‘A systemless system: Designing the disarticulation of English state education’, European Education Research Journal, 12(2): 231–241, https://doi.org/10.2304%2Feerj.2013.12.2.231
Lewis, M. (2021) The Premonition: A Pandemic Story, London: Penguin Random House UK.
LGA (Local Government Association) (2020a) Re-thinking Local, available at https://www.local.gov.uk/sites/default/files/documents/3.70%20Rethinking%20local_%23councilscan_landscape_FINAL.pdf
LGA (2020b) Comprehensive Spending Review 2020: LGA Submission, available at https://www.local.gov.uk/publications/re-thinking-public-finances#:~:text=Comprehensive%20Spending%20Review%202020%3A%20LGA%20submission%20This%20submission%2C,and%20business%20rates%2029%20Sep%202020%20Executive%20summary
LG Inform (2020) Number of State-Funded Secondary Schools in England, available at https://lginform.local.gov.uk/reports/lgastandard?mod-metric=6599&mod-area=E92000001&mod-group=AllRegions_England&mod-type=namedComparisonGroup
Lodge, M. and Hood, C. (2012) ‘Into an Age of Multiple Austerities? Public Management and Public Service Bargains across OECD Countries’, Governance: An International Journal of Policy, Administration and Institutions 25(1): 79–101.
Lord, P., Wespeiser, K. and Harland, J. (2016) Executive Headteachers: What’s in a Name? Full Report of Findings, Slough, Birmingham and London: NfER, NGA and TFLT.
Lupton, R. and Hayes, D. (2021) Great Mistakes in Education Policy and How to Avoid Them, Bristol: Policy Press.
Maden, M. (Ed) (2001) Success Against the Odds – Five Years On: Revisiting Effective Schools in Disadvantaged Areas, London: RoutledgeFalmer.
Marmot, M., Allen, J., Boyce, T., Goldblatt, P. and Morrison, J. (2020) Health Equity in England: The Marmot Review 10 Years On, London: Institute of Health Equity.
Martin, D. (2016) Whatever Happened to Extended Schools, London: ICL IoE Press.
Mason, R. and Inman, P. (2022) Biggest Civil Service Union Warns of Strikes over ‘P&O-style’ Plan to Cut Jobs, The Guardian, 14 May.
Mazzucato, M. (2013) The Entrepreneurial State – Debunking Public Vs Private Sector Myths, London: Anthem Press.
McGoey, L. (2015) No Such Thing as a Free Gift: The Gates Foundation and the Price of Philanthropy, London: Verso.
MHCLG (Ministry of Housing, Communities and Local Government) (2020) The Charter for Social Housing Residents: Social Housing White Paper, London: Ministry for Housing, Communities and Local Government.
Midwinter, E. (1998) The Billy Bunter Syndrome, or Why Britain Failed to Create a Relevant Secondary School System, Coventry: CEDC.
Midwinter, E. (2017 ) Education and the Community (Routledge Library Editions: Sociology of Education Volume 37, Abingdon: Routledge [London: George Allen and Unwin].
Milburn, A. (2009) Unleashing Aspiration: The Final Report of the Panel on Fair to the Professions, London: Cabinet Office, available at https://webarchive.nationalarchives.gov.uk/ukgwa/+/http:/www.cabinetoffice.gov.uk/media/227102/fair-access.pdf
Moll, L. (Ed) (1990 ) Vygotsky and Education: Instructional Implications and Applications of Sociohistorical Psychology, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Moll, L. and Greenberg, J. (1990) Creating Zones of Possibilities: Combining Social Contexts for Instruction, in Moll (2002).
Montacute, R. and Cullinane, C. (2021) Learning in Lockdown, London: Sutton Trust.
Morphet, J. (2021) The Impact of Covid-19 in Devolution: Recentralising the British State Beyond Brexit? Bristol: Bristol University Press.
Murray, J. (2022) Use national tutoring programme, Zahawi tells schools, The Guardian, 2 May.
NAO (National Audit Office) (2014) Performance and Capability of the Education and Funding Agency, London: The Stationery Office, available at https://www.nao.org.uk/wp-content/uploads/2015/01/Performance-and-capability-of-the-Education-Funding-Agency.pdf
NAO (2015) Funding for Disadvantaged Pupils, London: The Stationer Office, available at www.nao.org.uk/wp-content/uploads/2015/06/Funding-for-disadvantaged-pupils.pdf
NAO (2018) Financial Sustainability of Local Authorities 2018, London: National Audit Office.
NAO (2020) The Supply of Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) during the COVID-19 Pandemic, London: National Audit Office, available at https://www.nao.org.uk/wp-content/uploads/2020/11/The-supply-of-personal-protective-equipment-PPE-during-the-COVID-19-pandemic.pdf
NAO (2021a) Local Government Finance in the Pandemic, London: National Audit Office.
NAO (2021b) Support for Children’s Education during the Early Stages of the COVID-19 Epidemic, London: National Audit Office.
NAO (2021c) Central Oversight of Arms’-length Bodies, London: National Audit Office.
National Commission on Education (1996) Success Against the Odds. Effective Schools in Disadvantaged Areas, London: Routledge.
Nolan, Lord. (1995) Standards in Public Life: First Report of the Committee on Standards in Public Life, First Report, London: HMSO, available at https://assets.publishing.service.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/336919/1stInquiryReport.pdf
Nussbaum, M. (2011) Creating Capabilities :The Human Development Approach, Cambridge, MA: The Belknap Press.
OECD (2021) OECD Economic Outlook, Interim Report: Strengthening the Recovery: The Need for Speed, Paris: OECD.
OECD (2022) OECD Economic Outlook, Volume 22 Issue 1, Preliminary Version, Paris: OECD, available at https://www.oecd-ilibrary.org/sites/62d0ca31-en/1/3/2/46/index.html?itemId=/content/publication/62d0ca31-en&_csp_=0cf9a35c204747c5f82f56787b31b42b&itemIGO=oecd&itemContentType=book
Office for Budget Responsibility (2021a) Economic and Fiscal Outlook, London: OBR, CP 387.
Office for Budget Responsibility (2021b) Fiscal Risks Report, London: OBR, CP 453.
Ofsted (2019a) The Education Inspection Framework, Manchester: Ofsted, available at https://www.gov.uk/government/publications/education-inspection-framework/education-inspection-framework
Ofsted (2019b) School Inspection Handbook, Manchester: Ofsted, available at https://www.gov.uk/government/publications/school-inspection-handbook-eif/school-inspection-handbook
Ofsted (2020) The Annual Report of Her Majesty’s Chief Inspector of Education, Children’s Services and Skills 2019/20, Manchester: Ofsted, available at https://www.gov.uk/government/publications/ofsted-annual-report-201920-education-childrens-services-and-skills/the-annual-report-of-her-majestys-chief-inspector-of-education-childrens-services-and-skills-201920#hmci-commentary
Ofsted (2021) Summary Evaluations of Multi-Academy Trusts, Manchester: Ofsted, available at https://www.gov.uk/government/publications/summary-evaluations-of-multi-academy-trusts/summary-evaluations-of-multi-academy-trusts
ONS (2018) Changing Trends in Mortality: An International Comparison: 2000 to 2016, London: ONS, available at https://www.ons.gov.uk/peoplepopulationandcommunity/birthsdeathsandmarriages/lifeexpectancies/articles/changingtrendsinmortalityaninternationalcomparison/2000to2016#main-points
Ozga, J. (2009) ‘Governing education through data in England: from regulation to self-evaluation’, Journal of Education Policy, 24(2): 149–162.
Pike, H. (2019) ‘Life expectancy in England and Wales has fallen by six months’, The British Medical Journal, 11 March, available at https://www.bmj.com/content/364/bmj.l1123
PMSU (Prime Minister’s Strategy Unit) (2006) The Government’s Approach to Public Service Reform, London: The Cabinet Office.
Porter, N. and Simons, J. (2015) A Rising Tide: the competitive benefits of Free Schools, London: Policy Exchange, available at https://policyexchange.org.uk/wp-content/uploads/2016/09/a-rising-tide.pdf
Rasbash, J., Leckie, G., Pillinger, R. and Jenkins, J. (2010) ‘Children’s educational progress: Positioning family, school and area effects’, Journal of the Royal Statistical Society 173(3): 657–682.
Reay, D. (2017) Miseducation: Inequality, Education and the Working Classes, Bristol: Policy Press.
Riddell, R. (2003) Schools for Our Cities: Urban Learning for the Twentieth Century, Stoke-on-Trent: Trentham Books.
Riddell, R. (2009) ‘Schools in trouble again: A critique of the national challenge’, Improving Schools 12(1): 71–80.
Riddell, R. (2010) Aspiration, Identity and Self-Belief: Snapshots of Social Structure at Work, Stoke on Trent: Trentham Books.
Riddell, R. (2013) ‘Changing policy levers under the neoliberal state: Realising Coalition policy on education and social mobility’, Journal of Education Policy 28(6): 847–863.
Riddell, R. (2015) The Network around the School: The Work of Additional Ofsted Inspectors (AIs) with Schools in the ‘Self-Improving System’. Paper presented at the British Educational Research Association Annual Conference, Queen’s University, Belfast, 15–17 September, 2015.
Riddell, R. (2016) Equity, Trust and the Self-Improving Schools System, London: UCL Institute of Education/Trentham Books.
Riddell, R. (2019) ‘System fluidity in English school governance: Reflections on the implications for senior leaders in closed hierarchies’, Management in Education 33(3): 126–33.
Rousseau, J.-J. (1968 [1762, 1792]) The Social Contract, Harmondsworth: Penguin Classics.
Runciman, D. (2016) How Democracy Ends, London: Profile Books.
Simkins, T., Coldron, J.M. and Jones, S. (2015) ‘Emerging school landscapes: The role of the local authority’, School Leadership and Management 35(1): 4–8.
Simon, C. (2017) Beyond Every Child Matters: Neoliberal Education and Social Policy in the New Era, Abingdon: Routledge .
SMC (Social Mobility Commission) (2016) State of the Nation 2016: Social Mobility in Great Britain, available at https://assets.publishing.service.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/569410/Social_Mobility_Commission_2016_REPORT_WEB__1__.pdf
SMC (2021a) Navigating the Labyrinth: Socio-economic background and career progression in the Civil Service, London: Social Mobility Commission, available at https://assets.publishing.service.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/987600/SMC-NavigatingtheLabyrinth.pdf
SMC (2021b) State of the Nation 2021: Social Mobility and the Pandemic, London: Social Mobility Commission, available at https://assets.publishing.service.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/1003977/State_of_the_nation_2021_-_Social_mobility_and_the_pandemic.pdf
SMC/Sutton Trust (2019) Elitist Britain 2019: The Educational Backgrounds of Britain’s Leading People, London: the Sutton Trust and the Social Mobility Commission, available at https://assets.publishing.service.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/811045/Elitist_Britain_2019.pd
SMF (Social Market Foundation) (2020) The North Is Everywhere: Why We Shouldn’t Divide the Country in Two, London: Social Market Foundation, available at https://www.smf.co.uk/commentary_podcasts/the-north-is-everywhere/
Spielman, A. (2021) Amanda Spielman at the 2021 Schools and Academies Show, available at https://www.gov.uk/government/speeches/amanda-spielman-at-the-2021-schools-academies-show
Sridhar, D. (2021) The true costs of Britain’s mishandling of Covid are now plain to see, The Guardian, 12 October.
Tooze, A. (2018) Crashed: How a Decade of Financial Crises Changed the World, London: Penguin Random House.
TSC (2018) A Regional Operating Framework for School Improvement, Sutton Coldfield: Teaching Schools Council.
US Census Bureau (2021) World Population Review, available at https://worldpopulationreview.com/
White, I. (2006) Power to the People: The Report of Power, and Independent Inquiry into Britain’s Democracy, London: House of Commons Library, available at file:///G:/The%20book%20itself%20-%20Copy/Power.pdf
Whittaker, F. (2020) Covid-19: MATs should use resources to help ‘vulnerable’ school recover, says Herrington, Schools Week, 17 November.
Whittaker, F. (2021) ‘Permissive’ National Curriculum gives schools too much freedom, says Ofsted director, Schools Week, 30 June.
Whitty, G. (2002) Making Sense of Education Policy, London: Paul Chapman.
Wilkins, A. (2016) Modernising School Governance – Corporate Planning and Expert Handling in State Education, Abingdon: Routledge.
Wilkinson, R. and Pickett, K. (2009) The Spirit Level: Why More Equal Societies Almost Do Better, London: Allen Lane.
Williamson, G. (2021) Education Secretary Speech to the Confederation of School Trusts, London: DfE, available at https://www/www.government/speeches/
World Bank (2021) GDP by Country, available at https://data.worldbank.org/indicator/NY.GDP.PCAP.PP.CD?locations=GB)
Young, T. (2014) Prisoners of the Blob: Why Education Experts Are Wrong about Nearly Everything, London: Civitas.
Zizek, S. (2010) Living in the End Times, London: Verso.
|May 2022 onwards||Past Year||Past 30 Days|
|Full Text Views||9||9||1|