Work Integration in Comparative Perspective
Simone Baglioni and Francesca Calò
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Simone Baglioni and Francesca Calò 1
- 2What do the numbers say about migration in European economies?
Christos Bagavos, Konstantinos N. Konstantakis, Panayotis G. Michaelides and Theocharis Marinos 12
- 3Legal frameworks
Veronica Federico 38
- 4Welfare regimes and labour market integration policies in Europe
Nathan Lillie, Ilona Bontenbal and Quivine Ndomo 55
- 5Civil society organisations and labour market integration: barriers and enablers in seven European countries
Dino Numerato, Karel Čada and Karina Hoření 83
- 6Social partners: barriers and enablers
Simone Baglioni, Tom Montgomery and Francesca Calò 101
- 7The ‘back-stepper’ and the ‘career diplomat’: turning points of labour market integration
Irina Isaakyan, Simone Baglioni and Anna Triandafyllidou 120
- 8The policy dimension: lessons learnt and ways forward
Maria Mexi 138
List of figures and tables
- 1.1The multidimensional framework of analysis of migrant labour market integration proposed in the book 3
- 2.1Changes (percentage) in the overall population size over the 2014–2019 period 14
- 2.2Changes (percentage) in the size of the labour force between 2014 and 2020 17
- 2.3Share of foreign nationals to total population (percentage), SIRIUS countries 20
- 2.4Distribution of foreign nationals according to their educational attainment level (percentage), SIRIUS countries, 2008–2016 21
- 2.5Mean activity rates of foreign nationals by educational attainment level (percentage), SIRIUS countries, 2008–2016 21
- 2.6Participation of foreign nationals in the country’s labour market (percentage), SIRIUS countries, 2008–2016 22
- 2.7Mean employment rates of foreign nationals, by age group (percentage), SIRIUS countries, 2008–2016 22
- 2.8Mean employment rates of foreign nationals by educational attainment level (percentage), SIRIUS countries, 2008–2016 23
- 2.9Net migration rate, SIRIUS countries, 2008–2016 23
- 2.10First time asylum seekers per 1,000 persons, SIRIUS countries, 2014–2016 24
- 2.11Mean annual number of first instance decisions on asylum applications (per 1,000 persons), SIRIUS countries, 2008–2013, 2014–2016 25
- 2.12Ratio of positive to total final decisions on asylum applications, SIRIUS countries, 2008–2013, 2014–2016 25
- 2.13Mean annual number of first residence permits (per 1,000 persons), SIRIUS countries, 2008–2013, 2014–2016 26
- 3.1Asylum seekers’ labour market entry ban 44
- 3.2Recognition of qualifications of third country nationals 45
- 2.1Differences between foreign- and native-born population in their contribution to the overall population change and in their natural change (annual averages, per 1,000) 15
- 2.2The components of the contribution of foreign- and native-born persons to the shifts in the size of the labour force (as percentage of the labour force in 2014) 18
Labour absorbing sectors 28
- A.1Classification of sectors of economic activity, NACE Rev. 2, 1-dig 31
- A.2Specialisation index of occupations, 2016 32
- A.3Classification of sectors of economic activity, NACE Rev. 2, 2-dig 32
- A.4Sectoral specialisation index, 2016 34
- 3.1Vocational training and education 47
- 3.2Unemployment benefits 48
- 3.3Right to self-employment 49
- 4.1Summary of the cases 75
- 6.1Distribution of survey expert respondents by social partner categories (by country) 104
- 6.2Respondents’ perception of newcomers’ skills by type of newcomers 105
- 6.3Responses to the question ‘What perception do you have of the skills levels of most migrants and refugees?’ 106
- 6.4Responses to the question ‘Are migrants and refugees more of an asset or a burden for our societies?’ by type of social partner 107
- 6.5Responses to the question ‘Has the arrival of migrants or refugees created tensions in the labour market in your country with native workers?’ 109
- 6.6Causes of tensions (this response item applied only to those who responded positively to the question on tensions in the labour market provoked by migrants) 110
- 6.7Tools to mitigate competition between migrants and natives (this response item applied only to those who responded positively to the question about such a competition and multiple responses were allowed) 111
- 6.8Responses to the question ‘Do you think that the employment potential of migrants or refugees is fully realised?’ 112
- 6.9Responses to the question ‘What are the most important factors that prevent the full realisation of migrants or refugees’ employment capacities? (Please select every option that applies)’ 113
- 6.10Responses to the questions ‘What are the most effective factors in facilitating labour market entry? (Please select every option that applies)’ 113
- 6.11Responses to the question ‘Are policies effective in filling skills shortages?’ 114
- 6.12Responses to the question ‘Do you think that the health and safety risks faced by migrants and refugees are higher than, the same as, or lower than the risks faced by the native workforce?’ 115
Responses to the question ‘Which factors prevent the development of opportunities for social dialogue (negotiation and consultation between organised workers and employers which can often include policymakers, for example, collective bargaining) on migration and labour migration (if more than one, please select the three most important)?’ 116
Notes on contributors
Christos Bagavos is Professor of Demography at the Department of Social Policy, Panteion University, Greece. Christos’ publications and research interests focus on methods and analyses of differentials in fertility, migration and health status and on the socioeconomic implications of demographic shifts.
Simone Baglioni is Professor of Sociology at the Department of Economics and Management, University of Parma, Italy. Simone’s publications and research interests focus on employability, migration and social innovation.
Ilona Bontenbal is Project Researcher and PhD student in Social and Public Policy at the University of Jyväskylä, Finland. Ilona’s publications and research interests focus on migration, social and economic remittances, and labour market integration.
Karel Čada is Researcher in the Department of Sociology, Faculty of Social Sciences, Charles University, Czech Republic. Karel’s publications and research interests focus on poverty, social exclusion and migration.
Francesca Calò is Assistant Professor at the Department of Public Leadership and Social Enterprise, The Open University, UK. Francesca’s publications and research interests focus on non-profit organisations, social innovation, migration and social enterprises.
Veronica Federico is Associate Professor of Public Comparative Law at the Department of Legal Studies, University of Florence, Italy. Veronica’s publications and research interests focus on African comparative constitutional law, fundamental and human rights, citizenship and migration studies.
Karina Hoření is Researcher at Charles University, Czech Republic. Karina’s publications and research interests focus on migration, ethnic relations, social and cultural history.
Irina Isaakyan is Senior Research Associate at Toronto Metropolitan University, Canada. Irina’s publications and research interests focus on high skills and elite migrants, gender and identity and diaspora.
Konstantinos N. Konstantakis is Lecturer in Applied Economics at the National Technical University of Athens, Greece. Konstantinos’ publications
and research interests focus on econometrics, economic modelling and migration.
Nathan Lillie is Professor of Social and Public Policy at the University of Jyväskylä, Finland. Nathan’s publications and research interests focus on trade union strategy, labour mobility and trade union relations with migrant workers.
Theocharis Marinos is Adjunct Professor at the School of Social Sciences of the Hellenic Open University, Greece and a Postdoctoral Researcher at the School of Applied Mathematical and Physical Sciences of the National University of Athens, Greece.
Maria Mexi is Senior Fellow at Geneva Graduate Institute, Switzerland. Maria’s publications and research interests focus on employment and social policy, digital work and the platform economy.
Panayotis G. Michaelides is Associate Professor at the National Technical University of Athens, Greece. Panayotis’ publications and research interests focus on econometrics, economic modelling and migration.
Tom Montgomery is Lecturer in Politics at Glasgow Caledonian University, UK. Tom’s publications and research interests focus on youth unemployment, social innovation, social movements and the gig economy.
Quivine Ndomo is Project Researcher and PhD student at the Department of Social Sciences and Philosophy, University of Jyväskylä, Finland. Quivine’s publications and research interests focus on labour market institutions and the migrant labour force.
Dino Numerato is Associate Professor at the Department of Sociology at the Faculty of Social Sciences, Charles University, Czech Republic. Dino’s publications and research interests focus on the sociology of health and illness, civic engagement and activism, and migration.
Anna Triandafyllidou holds the Canada Excellence Research Chair on Migration and Integration at Toronto Metropolitan University, Canada. Anna’s publications and research interests focus on migration, cultural diversity, policy and identity issues.
We would like to thank all the people that agreed to be involved in our research. We hope that our contribution will support the development of fairer and human-based migration policies in European countries and beyond. We are grateful to the anonymous reviewers for their helpful comments in revising the book.
We would also like to acknowledge the European Commission which funded our research through the European Union Horizon 2020 research programme – grant agreement 770515 (SIRIUS).