Index

Efforts to prevent sexual violence against women and children can be evidenced by many local, national, global initiatives. In 2016, the World Health Organisation published its Global Plan of Action to address violence against women and children. The strategy called for a global and nationwide public health multisectoral response to preventing violence. This collection aims to respond to this call by examining academic and practitioner perspectives of current approaches that claim to respond to both victims and perpetrators of sexual violence in preventing future violence. Contributors across this collection, critically examine contemporary policy and practice, highlighting existing gaps in our knowledge, problems in policy and service delivery; as well as recommending possibilities and future solutions that might begin to address some of the challenges faced by stakeholders in this field.

4Ps structure of Istanbul Convention 133, 139144

A

Active Risk Management System–Female (ARMS-F) 150151
analysis of risk and protective domains 153
education and employment 159
family/social support, having positive 158159
intimacy and social skills deficits 155156
motivation to change 159
negative influences 157158
offence-supportive beliefs 154155
poor emotional self-management 156157
positive professional relationships 159160
self-efficacy/self-esteem beliefs 157
situational risk 153154
suggested new domains 162163
summary of ARMS-F tool analysis 160162
admissibility of evidence 119, 120, 121, 122, 124
advocacy support
for persons making a disclosure 106107
for rape victims 90
stalking victims 71
Age Concern 54
age-related organisations/practitioners 5355, 57
ageism, elder abuse 4953
alcohol misuse
coping mechanism, older women 55
and CSE victimisation 32
anti-stalking clinics 65, 7071
Appleton, George, Clare Wood’s killer 1819
Armstrong, Lindsey, suicide of 7980
Ashfield, S., female offenders’ relationships with professionals 160
athletes, vulnerability to abuse 33
Australia 11, 21, 2728, 173
autistic traits in mothers, link to abuse 31
awareness raising of sexual violence in later life 4749, 5556

B

Babchishi, K.M., access to children by sex offenders 36
Barbato, J., not proven verdict 8889
Barker, J.C., discrimination against older women 46
Bastard Verdict, Scotland 88
behavioural crime linkage (BCL) 111112
case examples 120122
future research directions 123
detection 123124
prevention 124125
prosecution 124
recommendations for practitioners 123
theoretical framework 112114
use in practice 114
during ongoing police investigations 114119
presented as evidence in court 119120
Berelowitz, S., vulnerabilities in CSE victims 3233
blame 12
victim blaming 73, 82, 83, 84
see also self-blame
Borduin, C.M., juvenile sexual offenders 35
Bowater, Alexis, stalking as ‘psychological rape’ 65
Bows, Hannah, violence against women 34, 172
Brackenbridge, C., vulnerability of athletes 33
Brooks, O., rape advocacy services 90
Brown, Sarah, sexual violence against children 3, 173
Buckley, H., audit of Irish child protection literature 27
Burlingham, Terence, serial sexual murder 121122
Burman, M.
consent issue 88
rape advocacy services 90
use of sexual history evidence 8687
Burrell, Amy, behavioural crime linkage 5, 119
Burt, Martha, rape myths 82
Butler, S.M., juvenile sex offenders 35

C

Cardoso, Cristiana, child sexual abuse by women 6, 171
Carloway, Lord, corroboration requirement 89
CEDAW (Convention on the Elimination of all Forms of Discrimination Against Women) 131, 135, 141
Cense, M., vulnerability of athletes 33
child maltreatment 28, 3738
child protection research 2728
child sexual abuse, experience and disclosure of 98103
child sexual abuse/exploitation (CSA/E) 2527, 3638
definitions 2627
protective indicators 3031
research mapping 2728
risk indicators 2830
for CSA/E perpetration 3436
for CSA/E victimisation 3133
child sexual abuse by women 149150
Active Risk Management System-Female (ARMS-F) 150153
risk analysis and protective domains 153163
recommendations for practitioners 164165
ChildLine, disclosures of female-perpetrated sexual abuse 149
Chrisler, J.C., ageism 50
Clare’s Law 18, 1920
co-offending 150, 152153, 155156, 157, 158
coercion of female offenders 158
coercive control, new offence of 17, 64
Cohen, I., spectrum of prevention model 14
complainant credibility 82, 8586, 88, 8990
consent issues, reporting of rape 83, 8586, 87, 88
‘continuum of sexual violence’ 10, 64, 172
Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women 1981 (CEDAW) 131, 135, 141
Convention of Belem do Para 131, 136, 138, 142
Convention on Preventing and Combating Violence against Women and Domestic Violence see Istanbul Convention
coping mechanisms
dissociation following assault 83
of older people, use of alcohol 55
prosocial support 158
corroboration requirement, Scotland 88
abolishing 80, 89
Cortoni, F., reoffending likelihood of prostitutes 163
credibility of complainant/witness 82, 8586, 88, 8990
Crenshaw, K., intersectionality 45
crime linkage see behavioural crime linkage (BCL)
Crime Survey for England and Wales (CSEW) 43, 44, 64
criminal justice system (CJS)
failing victims of sexual violence 7991
lack of nuanced understanding of stalking 68
persistence of rape myths within 8284, 85
as prevention 1618
secondary victimisation by 80, 82, 91
stalkers evading 6667
Crockett, C., violence against older women, invisibility of 56
cultural differences in rape 118
cultural practices harmful to women, modification of 141142
cultural relativism 140
‘cycle of violence’ presumption 13
‘cycles of abuse’ explanation for CSA/E 34

D

Davis, K., unequal benefits of feminist activism/campaigns 56
detection of serial offenders 123124
DEVAW (Declaration on the Elimination of Violence against Women 1993), UN 136
deviant sexual interests, perpetrators of CSA 35
disabled children, CSA/E risk indicators 31
disclosure schemes for domestic violence perpetrators 1820
disclosure of sexual crime 9596
to employer 101103
personal story 98101
recommendations 104108
responses to 9698
discrimination
ageism and sexism 4953
domestic violence as 133139
dissociation, psychological response to rape 83
Domestic Abuse, Stalking and Honour-Based Violence (DASH) checklist 70
domestic violence
among older people 44, 55, 56, 57
disclosure schemes 1820
discriminatory approach towards 133139
Domestic Violence Disclosure Scheme (Clare’s Law) 18, 1920
drug abuse, link to CSE 32
Duggan, M., victim hierarchies 20, 21

E

ecological model of prevention 1314
education programmes for preventing CSA/E 3031
elder abuse, services targeted towards 57
Eley, S., specialist domestic violence courts 17
Ellison, L., effect of jurors’ training in rape trials 89
emotional stability issues, women offenders 156157
European Convention on Human Rights (ECHR) 136137
European Court of Human Rights (ECtHR) 136138
Euser, S., prevalence of sexual abuse in residential care 3132
Evans, Ched, acquittal of 87

F

family/social support, required for women offenders 158159
female sexual offenders 149150
ARMS-F tool 150153
analysis of risk and protective domains 153163
recommendations for practitioners 164165
feminism
activism and campaigns 56
theories of sexual violence 4445
financial independence, protective factor 163
Fohring, Stephanie, sexual crime reporting and limits of the law 4, 81, 173
Freeman, N., recidivism of female sexual offenders 163
future research directions, crime linkage
detection 123124
prevention 124125
prosecution 124

G

Genn, H., violence against women as an everyday occurrence 10, 14, 18
Goodmark, L., justice as a tertiary prevention response 17
Gray, Vera, ‘ordinary’ nature of violence against women 172
Green, L., sexual abuse in care homes 32
Guney, Gizem, ratification of Istanbul Convention 5, 173

H

Hale, Lady, on the notion of consent 87
harassment 69, 70, 172
see also stalking
Harbers, E., serial sex offenders’ behaviour 119
Harris, S.B., responses to elder abuse vs domestic abuse 57
Hazelwood, Roy, linkage analysis 119120
Herberle, R., sexual violence 10
hidden nature of men’s violence 20
Higgins, D.J., review of Australian child protection literature 2728
historic sexual abuse, disclosure of 95, 101103
responses to 9698
holistic approach to prevention 139143, 173
Home Affairs Committee, register of serial stalkers 70
Hudson, B., ‘white man’s justice’ 18
human rights law 131132
ECtHR 136138
universalism vs cultural relativism 140
Humphreys, C., ‘whole family’ intervention 15

I

‘ideal victim’ concept 8283, 172
Independent Police Complaints Commissioner (IPCC), review of Clare Wood case 1819
indicators for CSA/E 2936
initial reason for female offending, effect on recidivism 163
intersectionality 45, 53, 58
intimacy deficits, women offenders 155156
Istanbul Convention 131133
discrimination approach towards domestic violence 133139
holistic measures 139143
recommendations to practitioners 143144

J

Jones, J., victimisation of disabled children 31
judges, training in rape cases 8990
jurors
impact of rape myths on 83
perception of BCL evidence 124
training to eliminate rape myths 8990
‘Justice Gap’, low rate of rape convictions 81
juvenile sexual offenders 34, 35

K

Kelly, L., domestic homicides review 57
Kelly, Liz
‘continuum of sexual violence’ 64, 172
elder abuse 57
perpetrator programmes 16
Kewley, Stephanie, female sexual offenders 6, 171
Korkodeilou, Jenny, on harassment and stalking 4

L

Labuschagne, G., linkage of serial sexual murders 121
law/legislation
changes in 1618, 69
Clare’s Law 1920
criminal justice system 1618
and domestic violence 143
human rights 138
implementation failure 17
leading to increase in sexual history evidence 87
limitations of 172173
new offence of coercive control 17
rape shield law, failure of 8587
soft-law instruments 132, 136, 138, 144
and stalking 69
life sabotage, stalking experience 7273
linkage blindness 123
Logan, T.K., multidimensional stalking framework 72

M

Mackinnon, K., battery 10
male coercion 158
Masson, H., sexual abuse in care homes 32
Mathers, C., contribution of CSA to global burden of disease 25
Matthews, R., typologies of female sexual off enders 154
McCulloch, Jude, ‘ordinariness’ of violence against women 23, 4, 5, 9596, 103, 171172
McGlynn, C., rape trials and sexual history evidence 85
mechanistic model of prevention 13
media reports
older victims of rape 4546
of rape convictions in Scotland 8081
Meloy, M.L., ‘messiness’ of people’s real lives 18
#MeToo movement, awareness-raising through 56, 71
Michau, L., effective policy intervention on violence against women 2021
Millor, S.L., ‘messiness’ of people’s real lives 18
mock juries, research using 83
models of prevention 1215
Mooney, J. 9
motivation
to change, female sex offenders 159
for sexual offending by women 150, 156, 163
for stalking 67
multi-agency working/partnerships
and older sexual violence victims 5355, 5657
stalking intervention programmes 7071
Munrow, V., effect of jurors’ training in rape trials 89
myths
about stalking 68
of rape 8284
jury training to reduce impact of 8990
legislation aiming to limit impact of 86
and sexual history evidence 85
sexual violence, impact on older women 50, 5758

N

National Stalking Helpline 65, 71
Naylor, Mark, disclosure of childhood sexual abuse 5, 172
negative dependency/associations, women offenders 157158
‘not proven’ verdict, Scotland 8889
NSPCC (National Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Children)
child protection research 28
disclosures to ChildLine 149

O

offence paralleling behaviour (OPB) 125
offence-supportive beliefs, women offenders 154155
older victims of sexual violence 43
ageism and sexism 4953
awareness raising 4749
background 44
feminist theories 4445
invisibility of 5556
media reports 4546
multi-agency working/partnerships 5355, 5657
prevention initiatives 5558
and the ‘real rape’ stereotype 43, 45, 46
risk assessment 5455
safeguarding 53
Olive, P., costs of intimate partner violence 12
online vs offline sex offenders 36
‘ordinariness’ of violence against women 3, 4, 1011, 9596, 172

P

Paladin, victim support service 65, 71
peer sexual abuse, normalised in residential care 32
Pennell, Steven, serial sexual murder 120121
perpetrator programmes 1516, 7071
perpetrators of CSA, risk indicators 3436
police
attitudes/responses to stalking 69, 70
cultural beliefs 9697
investigations, use of BCL 114119
need for specialist training in stalking prevention 6970
specialist stalking units 7071
Police Information Notices (PINs), harassment 65, 70
policy recommendation, disclosure of sexual crime 104
prevention 1112
BCL research 124125
as changing men’s behaviour 1516
of child abuse/exploitation 30, 3738
criminal justice as 1618
and disclosure 1820
models 1215
recommendations for practitioners 2021
strategies, Istanbul Convention 138139, 140, 144
trauma-focused approach for stalking 73
of violence against older women 5558
professionals, female offenders’ relationship with 159160
prosecution of serial offenders 124
prosocial institutions, women offenders engaging with 159
prostitution, link to reoffending 163
Protection from Harassment Act (PHA) 69
protective factors, ARMS-F tool 151, 158160, 163
protective indicators, prevention of CSA/E 3031
psychological impacts/responses
disclosure 105106
of stalking 65, 6667
to rape 83
of violence 13
women offenders 156157
psychological violence, Istanbul Convention 132, 133

R

Randall, M., psychological illiteracy of lawyers 84
rape
in later life 4546, 49, 50
reporting of 7991
stereotypes about 43, 45, 46, 50, 5758, 8283
rape myths
in the criminal justice system 8586
persistence of 8284
training of judges/jurors to reduce impact of 8990
rape shield legislation 8587
Rapid Evidence Assessment (REA), CSA/E risk and protective indicators 2936
‘real rape’ stereotype 43, 45, 46, 5758, 8283
recidivism of female sexual offenders, prevention of 149165
register of serial stalkers, Home Affairs Committee recommendation 70
relationship problems, women who offend
intimate relationships 155156
with professionals 159160
reporting of sexual crimes 7991
residential care, child sexual abuse in 3132
resistance by the ‘ideal’ victim 8283
responsive model of prevention 14
Ressler, R.K., BCL case study 120121
rights of women 4950, 9091, 131
risk assessment
BCL research 125
older people 55
situational risk 153154
stalking tools used by police 70
risk indicators 30
for CSA/E perpetration 3436
for CSA/E victimisation 3133
Risk Matrix 2000 (RM2000), actuarial tool for recidivism prediction 152
Roberts, A., autism-abuse link 31
Ronis, S.T., problems in juvenile sexual offenders 35

S

safeguarding of older people 53
Sandler, J., recidivism of female sexual offenders 163
Santtila, P.,cultural differences in rape 118
Scottish Crime and Justice Survey (SCJS) 81
Scottish law 80, 88, 89
secondary victimisation 80, 82, 88
rape advocacy programmes ameliorating 90
self-blame
children 30
older survivors 52, 53, 5758
self-efficacy 157
self-esteem 157
self-protection skills, young children learning 3031
serial sexual offending, BCL 111
case examples 120122
interpretation of evidence 118119
Seto, M.C., juvenile sex offenders 35
sexism
campaigns challenging 5556, 71
intersection with ageism 4953
stereotypes about rape 5758
sexual history evidence, rape trials 8587, 89
Sexual Offences Scotland Act (2002) 87
sexual orientation 153
shame
barrier to disclosure of sexual abuse 96, 102103
older women 5152, 53, 5758
Sharp-Jeffs, N., domestic homicides review 57
shield legislation, failures of 8587
signature analysis 122
situational risk, women offenders 153154
Smeaton, E., children running away, link to CSE 33
social media, women’s rights movements 91
social skills deficits, women offenders 155156
specialist domestic violence courts 17
spectrum of prevention model 14
sports coaches, sexual abuse by 33
stalking 6364
lack of unanimous definition 66
legal changes 69
media depictions 6768
methods used by perpetrators 6667
motivations of perpetrators 67
multi-agency interventions 7071
police attitudes towards 69, 70
possible multidimensional framework 7273
prevalence of 64
preventive measures 7071, 73
stereotypical assumptions and myths about 68
underreporting of 6970
victim services 71
Stalking Advocacy Caseworkers (ISACs) 65, 71
Stalking Protection Orders (SPOs) 70
Stalking Threat Assessment Centre (STAC), London 7071
Stanko, Elizabeth A. 9, 63
Stanley, N., ‘whole family’ intervention 15
stereotypes
gender roles 141
about rape 43, 45, 46, 50, 5758, 8283
about stalking 68, 69, 73
stigma
attached to the ‘rape victim’ 82
attached to sexual victimisation 45, 80
in disclosing sexual violence 51, 96, 97
Sukude, Themba Anton, serial sexual murder 121
support
family/social, for women offenders 158159
for persons making a disclosure 106107
for rape victims 90
for victims of stalking 71
Support to Report (S2R) scheme, Glasgow 90
Swift, S., spectrum of prevention model 14

T

Temkin, J., rape myths 82
third (‘not proven’) verdict 8889
Tolman, R., men’s programmes for preventing violence 16
Tonkin, Matthew, crime linkage 5, 113114
training
of employees in responding to disclosure 104106
for judges and juries on rape 8990
need for in age-related organisations 55, 57
for police working with women offenders 150151
specialist training for police on stalking 6970
trials for sexual offences
rape myths 8384
serial sexual murder case 121122
sexual history evidence 8687
victims should not appear in court 89
Turvey, B.E., offender modus operandi 126

U

Ulster rugby players, trial of 8384
underreporting of sexual crimes 4, 8090, 131132
United Nations (UN)
Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of All Forms of Discrimination against Women 1981 (CEDAW, 1981) 131, 135, 141
Declaration on Elimination of Violence against Women (DEVAW, 1993) 11, 136
Progress of Women report (2011–12) 136
United States (US)
behavioural crime linkage, serial sexual murder 120121
child abuse research 28
rape shield legislation 86
regression of 90
specialist domestic violence courts 17
stalking prevention strategies 73
universalism 140, 141

V

Vasquez, David, wrongly convicted 122
victim blaming 73, 82, 83, 84
victim preference 154
victim status, negative connotations 81
vulnerability
of children 2833, 38
older people 46, 49

W

Walby, S., costs of intimate partner violence 12
Walker, R., multidimensional framework for stalking 72
Walklate, Sandra 23, 4, 5, 9596, 103, 171, 172, 173174
What Is to Be Done about Violence against Women (Wilson) 9, 173
Whitaker, D.J.
need for longitudinal research 37
risk factors for CSA/E perpetration 36
whole family model of prevention 1415
Wilson, Elizabeth, holistic approach 910, 11, 15, 1617, 173
witness credibility 85, 86
Wolfe, D.A., children witnessing violence 13
women offenders 149150
ARMS-F tool 150153
analysis of risk and protective domains 153163
recommendations for practitioners 164165
Wood, Clare, murder of 1819
Woodhams, J., cultural differences in rape 118
World Health Organization (WHO)
cost of sexual violence 1
CSA as risk factor affecting global burden of disease 25
ecological model of prevention 13
Global Plan of Action 12

Z

Zarkov, D., unequal benefits of feminist activism/campaigns 56

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