Chapter 2


The SCJS records public experiences of, and perceptions about, crime (Scottish Government, 2019c, 2020d).


1965 was judged to be the peak year for weapon-carrying and its relationship to gang and street violence (ISTD, Scottish Branch, 1970)


The described geographical locations, where the participants had grown up and/or spent their teenage years, were not necessarily always the ones they currently resided in (particularly in the case of the adult members of our sample).


In an abundance of caution and to protect the human subjects of our research, the data sources for these descriptions are either not published or described in loose terms, as a means of ensuring that the specific geographical locations of the fieldwork sites do not become immediately apparent to the reader. More information on the locations may be available upon request on a case-by-case basis and subject to the discretion of the authors.

Chapter 3


The Scottish Index of Multiple Deprivation (SIMD) is the Scottish Government’s standard approach to identifying areas of multiple deprivation in Scotland. It is a relative measure of deprivation across 6,976 small areas (called data zones). It looks at the extent to which an area is deprived across seven domains: income, employment, education, health, access to services, crime and housing. SIMD ranks data zones from most deprived (ranked 1) to least deprived (ranked 6,976) (Scottish Government, 2020e).


All interviewee names used are, as in the other parts of the book, pseudonyms. The real names of the organisations that were difficult to disguise because of their high-profile presence within Scotland have, with the permission of the interviewees, been named, while the name of the school has been anonymised. In some cases, the specific named professional roles of the participants have been amended slightly as a further means of providing anonymity to those whose organisations are named.


Our fieldwork was conducted in the months immediately preceding the emergence of COVID-19 cases in Scotland and the subsequent lockdown restrictions introduced in March 2020.

Chapter 4


All geographical areas have been given pseudonyms. See Appendix for further details.


A loose contextual description of each of the geographical areas can be found in the Appendix.

Chapter 5


In 2010, a car in which Kevin Carroll was travelling was ambushed by masked men with firearms, who unloaded a series of bullets into the vehicle, killing Carroll (Findlay, 2012).


The nature of knife crime, and the young ages of those involved, meant that the activities of OCGs went under the radar in some respect in the eyes of the public. Indeed, the notorious head of the Lyons crime family in Glasgow was allowed to operate a community centre for years, despite local appeals to have him removed. It was only once two masked men walked into a local garage owned by the Lyons’ OCG and opened fire, injuring two and killing one, that the individual in question was removed from his position (Findlay, 2012).


This drug war saw 14 individuals murdered, and the systemic killing of one of the two main rival groups (McLean, forthcoming).


With the decline of the Daniels OCG, following the death of older and prominent members, another resulting gang emerged in the aftermath, comprised mainly of Daniels allies and remnants of the Daniels gang (McLean and Densley, 2020).


The brothers originate from an area south of the city centre. Their position was not one involved in extorting extra-legal governance over criminal groups in the country but rather in supplying them with the means to do so (McLean and Densley, 2020).


The Milton YSG formed the original core of individuals for the current Lyons OCG. Through the kinship of two of the local YSG members, access to political and police corruption was gained, and premises was established for drug storage and supply. As the gang aged, core members would form alliances with adults and established criminal figures in Paisley. This would provide the muscle for the Lyons gang to evolve (see McLean and Densley, 2020).


A loose contextual description of each of the geographical areas can be found in the Appendix.


In reality some ‘new drugs’ have been around for a number of years but have only now found their way into the realm of more mainstream illicit drug use.


‘On tick’ refers to drug users buying supplies from dealers with an agreement to pay later.


Older dealers are more involved in monitoring the behaviour of youth dealing on their behalf, and indeed, in such situations, may do so through various apps using location finders and FaceTime (Storrod and Densley, 2017).

Chapter 6


In the late 2000s, Rangers FC experienced financial difficulties, entering into administration in February 2012. The Rangers Football Club PLC entered liquidation later that year and the administrators sold the business and assets of Rangers to a new company (BBC News, 2012). Since the other member clubs of the SPL refused to allow the new company to adopt the league membership of the old company, Rangers (now trading as The Rangers Football Club Ltd) entered the Third Division of the SPL. It took the relaunched club four years to climb through the divisions and re-enter the Scottish Premiership, finally re-entering the SPL in time for the 2016–17 season and thus reinstating the regular Rangers vs Celtic league fixture (Herbert, 2016).

  • Aldridge, J. and Medina, J. (2008) ‘Youth gangs in an English city: social exclusion, drugs and violence’, ESRC End of Award Report, Swindon: ESRC.

  • Aldridge, J., Shute, J., Ralphs, R. and Median, J. (2009) ‘Blame the parents? Challenges for parent-focused programmes for families of gang-involved young people’, Children and Society, 25(5): 371–81.

  • Allen, K. and Mendick, H. (2015) ‘Celebrity culture and young people’s aspirations: a resource for careers education?’, Journal of the National Institute for Career Education and Counselling, 34(1): 15–21.

  • Alleyne, E. and Wood, J.L. (2010) ‘Gang involvement: psychological and behavioural characteristics of gang members, peripheral youth and non-gang youth’, Aggressive Behavior, 36(6): 423–36.

  • Alleyne, E., Wood, J.L., Mozova, K. and James, M. (2014) ‘Psychological and behavioral characteristics that distinguish street gang members in custody’, Legal and Criminological Psychology, 21(2): 266–85.

  • Alonso, A.A. (2004) ‘Racialised identities and the formation of black gangs in Los Angeles’, Urban Geography, 25(7): 658–74.

  • Andell, J. (2019) Thinking Seriously About Gangs: Towards a Critical Realist Approach, London: Palgrave Macmillan.

  • Andell, P. and Pitts, J. (2018) ‘The end of the line? The impact of county lines drug distribution on youth crime in a target destination’, Youth & Policy, [online], Available from: [Accessed 26 August 2020].

  • Anderson, E. (1999) Code of the Street: Decency, Violence and the Moral Life of the Inner City, New York: W.W. Norton.

  • Anderson, J. and Shuttleworth, I. (1998) ‘Sectarian demography, territoriality and political development in Northern Ireland’, Political Geography, 17(2): 187_208.

  • Armour, R. (2019) ‘Foodbank use soars to record levels in Scotland’, Third Force News, [online], 25 April, Available from: [Accessed 10 June 2020].

  • Arnot, J. and Mackie, P. (2019) Scottish Public Health Network Violence Prevention Framework, Glasgow: ScotPHN.

  • Atkinson, C. and Fraser, A. (2014) ‘Making up gangs: looping, labelling and the new politics of intelligence-led policing’, Youth Justice, 14(2): 154–70.

  • Baird, A. (2012) ‘The violent gang and the construction of masculinity amongst socially excluded young men’, Safer Communities, 11(4): 179–90.

  • Banjanin, N., Banjanin, N., Dimitrijevic, I. and Pantic, I. (2015) ‘Relationship between internet use and depression: focus on physiological mood oscillations, social networking and online addictive behaviour’, Computers in Human Behavior, 43: 308–12.

  • Barry, C.T., Sidoti, C.L., Briggs, S.M., Reiter, S.R. and Lindsey, R.A. (2017) ‘Adolescent social media use and mental health from adolescent and parent perspectives’, Journal of Adolescence, 61: 1–11.

  • Barry, M. (2006) Youth Offending in Transition: The Search for Social Recognition, London: Routledge.

  • Bartie, A. (2010) ‘Moral panics and Glasgow gangs: exploring the new wave of Glasgow hooliganism, 1965–1970’, Contemporary British History, 24(3): 385–408.

  • Basketball APPG (All-Party Parliamentary Group) (2014) ‘Inquiry report: evidence from Scottish Sports Futures’, Scottish Parliament, [online], Available from: [Accessed 9 June 2020].

  • Batchelor, S.A., Armstrong, S. and MacLellan, D. (2019) ‘Taking stock of violence in Scotland’, Glasgow: SCCJR.

  • Batsleer, J. and Davies, B. (2010) What is Youth Work?, Exeter: Learning Matters.

  • BBC News (2012) ‘Rangers Football Club enters administration’, [online] 14 February, Available from: [Accessed 30 October 2020].

  • BBC News (2018) ‘“Intense” child poverty in affluent areas of Scotland’, [online] 15 March, Available from: [Accessed 11 February 2021].

  • BBC News (2019) ‘Scotland has highest drug death rate in EU’, [online] 16 July, Available from: [Accessed 17 September 2020].

  • BBC News (2020) ‘Two arrested during Republican march and Loyalist protest in Glasgow’, [online] 25 January, Available from: [Accessed 30 October 2020].

  • Bellis, M.A. and Hughes, K. (2011) ‘Getting drunk safely? Night life policy in the UK and its public health consequences’, Drug and Alcohol Review, 35(5): 536–45.

  • Bennett, T. and Holloway, K. (2004) ‘Gang membership, drugs and crime in the UK’, British Journal of Criminology, 44(3): 305–23.

  • Best, P., Manktelow, R. and Taylor, B. (2014) ‘Online communication, social media and adolescent wellbeing: a systematic narrative review’, Children and Youth Services Review, 41: 27–36.

  • Bloch, A. (2014) ‘Living in fear: rejected asylum seekers living as irregular migrants in England’, Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies, 40(10): 1507–25.

  • Bloch, H.A. and Niederhoffer, A. (1958) The Gang: A Study in Adolescent Behavior, New York: Philasophical Library.

  • Bourdieu, P. (1986) ‘The forms of capital’, in J.G. Richardson (ed) Handbook of Theory and Research for the Sociology of Education, New York: Greenwood Press, pp 258–71.

  • Bourdieu, P. (1990) The Logic of Practice, Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.

  • Bradley, J.M. (2000) ‘Catholic distinctiveness: a need to be different?’, in T.M. Devine (ed) Scotland’s Shame? Bigotry and Sectarianism in Modern Scotland, Edinburgh: Mainstream, pp 159–74.

  • Bradley, J.M. (2015) ‘Sectarianism, anti-sectarianism and Scottish football’, Sport in Society, 18(5): 588–603.

  • Bradshaw, P. (2005) ‘Terrors and young teams: youth gangs and delinquency in Edinburgh’, in S.H. Decker and F.M. Weerman (eds) European Street Gangs and Troublesome Youth Groups, Oxford: AltaMira Press, pp 193–218.

  • Brookman, F., Bennet, T. and Hochstetler, A. (2010) ‘The “code of the street” and the generation of street violence in the UK’, European Journal of Criminology, 8(1): 17–31.

  • Brown, L., Ware, G. and Cassimally, K.A. (2019) ‘Knife crime: causes and solutions – editors’ guide to what our academic experts say’, The Conversation, [online] 11 March, Available from: [Accessed 23 October 2019].

  • Bruce, S., Glendinning, T., Paterson I. and Rosie M. (2004) Sectarianism in Scotland, Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press.

  • Bruce, S., Glendinning, T., Paterson P. and Rosie M. (2005) ‘Religious discrimination in Scotland: fact or myth?’, Ethnic and Racial Studies, 28(1): 151–68.

  • Bullock, K. and Tilley, N. (2002) ‘Shootings, gangs and violent incidents in Manchester: developing a crime reduction strategy’, Home Office Crime Reduction Research Series Paper 13, London: Home Office.

  • Bullock, K. and Tilley, N. (2003) Crime Reduction and Problem-Oriented Policing, Devon: Willan Publishing.

  • Campbell, A. and Muncer, S. (1989) ‘Them and us: a comparison of the cultural context of American gangs and British subcultures’, Deviant Behavior, 10(3): 271–88.

  • Carnochan, J. (2015) Conviction: Violence, Culture and a Shared Public Service Agenda, Edinburgh: Argyll Publishing.

  • Casey, J., Hay, G., Godfrey, C. and Parrot, S. (2009) Assessing the Scale and Impact of Illicit Drug Markets in Scotland, Edinburgh: Scottish Government.

  • Catch 22 (2019) ‘Tackling crime together: a public health approach’, London: Catch 22.

  • Centre for Social Justice (2009) ‘Dying to belong: an in-depth review of street gangs in Britain’, London: Centre for Social Justice.

  • Centres for Disease Control and Prevention (2018) ‘Injury prevention and control: Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACE) study’, [online], Available from: [Accessed 4 March 2020].

  • Clayton, T. (2005) ‘Diasporic otherness: racism, sectarianism and national exteriority in modern Scotland’, Social and Cultural Geography, 6(1): 99–116.

  • Coburn, A. (2010) ‘Youth work as border pedagogy’, in J.R. Batsleer and B. Davies (eds) What Is Youth Work?, Exeter: Learning Matters, pp 33–47.

  • Coburn, A. and Wallace, D. (2011) Youth Work in Communities and Schools, Edinburgh: Dunedin Academic Press.

  • Cohen, S. (1972) Folk Devils and Moral Panic: The Creation of the Mods and the Rockers, Oxford: Blackwell.

  • Coleman, J. (2014) Remember the Past in Nineteenth Century Scotland: Commemoration, Nationality, and Memory, Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press.

  • Conaglen, P. and Gallimore, A. (2014) Violence Prevention: A Public Health Priority, Glasgow: ScotPHN.

  • Congreve, E. (2019) Poverty in Scotland 2019, York: Joseph Rowntree Foundation.

  • Connell, R.W. (2005) Masculinities, Cambridge: Polity Press.

  • Conroy, J. (2001) ‘A very Scottish affair: Catholic education and the State’, Oxford Review of Education, 27(4): 543–58.

  • Coomber, R. and Moyle, L. (2012) ‘A rapid appraisal of the illicit drug market in Southend-on-Sea, Essex: Full Report’, Plymouth: Plymouth University, Drug and Alcohol Research Unit.

  • Coomber, R. and Moyle, L. (2018) ‘The changing shape of street-level heroin and crack supply in England: commuting, holidaying and cuckooing drug dealers across “County lines”’, British Journal of Criminology, 58(6): 1323–42.

  • Corney, T. (2004) ‘Value versus competencies: implications for the future of professional youth work education’, Journal of Youth Studies, 7(4): 513–27.

  • Cottrell-Boyce, J. (2013) ‘Ending gang and youth violence: a critique’, Youth Justice, 13(3): 193–206.

  • Coyne, S.M., Rogers, A.A., Zurcher, J.D., Stockdale, L. and Booth, M. (2020) ‘Does time spent using social media impact mental health? An eight year longitudinal study’, Computers in Human Behavior, 104: 106160.

  • Craig, C. (2010) The Tears that Made the Clyde, Glasgow: Argyll Publishing.

  • Crippa, J.A., Zuardi, A.W., Martín-Santos, R., Bhattacharyya, S., Atakan, Z., McGuire, P. and Fusar-Poli, P. (2009) ‘Cannabis and anxiety: a critical review of the evidence’, Human Psychopharmacology: Clinical and Experimental, 24(7): 515–23.

  • Cullen, F.T. (1994) ‘Social support as an organizing concept for criminology: presidential address to the Academy of Criminal Justice Sciences’, Justice Quarterly, 11(4): 527–59.

  • Davidson, E. (2020) ‘Social justice or social control? an ethnographic study of detached youth work in Scotland’, Scottish Affairs, 29(2): 254–76.

  • Davies, A. (1998) ‘Street gangs, crime and policing in Glasgow during the 1930s: the case of the Beehive Boys’, Social History, 23(3): 3–4.

  • Davies, A. (2013) City of Gangs: Glasgow and the Rise of the British Gangster, London: Hodder and Stoughton.

  • Day, A. (2009) ‘Offender emotion and self-regulation: implications for offender rehabilitation programming’, Psychology, Crime & Law, 15(2–3): 119–30.

  • Decker, S.H. (1996) ‘Collective and normative features of gang violence’, Justice Quarterly, 13(2): 245–64.

  • Decker, S.H. (2001) ‘The impact of organizational features on gang activities and relationships’, in M.W. Klein, H.J. Kerner, C.L. Maxson and E.G.M. Weitekamp (eds) The Eurogang Paradox: Street Gangs and Youth Groups in the U.S. and Europe, London: Kluwer, pp 21–39.

  • Decker, S.H., Katz, C.M. and Webb, V.J. (2008) ‘Understanding the black box of gang organization: implications for involvement in violent crime, drug sales, and violent victimization’, Crime and Delinquency, 54(1): 153–72.

  • Decker, S.H. and Pyrooz, D.C. (2011) Leaving the Gang: Logging Off and Moving On, New York: Council on Foreign Relations.

  • Decker, S., Pyrooz, D. and Densley, J. (2021) On Gangs, Philadelphia, PA: Temple University Press.

  • Decker, S.H. and Weerman, F.M. (eds) (2005) European Street Gangs and Troublesome Youth Groups (vol 3), Lanham: Rowman Altamira.

  • Densley, J.A. (2011) ‘Ganging up on gangs: why the gang intervention industry needs an intervention’, British Journal of Forensic Practice, 13(1): 12–23.

  • Densley, J.A. (2012) ‘The organisation of London’s street gangs’, Global Crime, 13(1): 42–64.

  • Densley, J.A. (2013) How Gangs Work: An Ethnography of Youth Violence, London: Palgrave Macmillan.

  • Densley, J.A. (2014) ‘It’s a gang life, but not as we know it: the evolution of gang business’, Crime and Delinquency, 60(4): 517–46.

  • Densley, J.A., Deuchar, R. and Harding, S. (2020) ‘An introduction to gangs and serious youth violence in the United Kingdom’, Youth Justice (Special Issue: Street Gangs, Group Offending and Violence), 20(1–2): 3–10.

  • Densley, J., McLean, R., Deuchar, R. and Harding, S. (2019) ‘Progression from cafeteria to à la carte offending: Scottish organised crime narratives’, The Howard Journal of Crime and Justice, 58(2): 161–79.

  • Densley, J.A., McLean, R., Deuchar, R. and Harding, S. (2018) ‘An altered state? Emergent changes to illicit drug markets and distribution networks in Scotland’, International Journal of Drug Policy, 58: 113–20.

  • Deuchar, R. (2009a) Gangs, Marginalised Youth and Social Capital, Stoke-on-Trent: Trentham.

  • Deuchar, R. (2009b) ‘Urban youth cultures and the re-building of social capital: illustrations from a pilot study in Scotland’, A Journal of Youth Work, 1:7–22.

  • Deuchar, R. (2010) ‘“It’s just pure harassment … as if it’s a crime to walk in the street”: anti- social behaviour, youth justice and citizenship – the reality for young men in the east end of Glasgow’, Youth Justice, 10(3): 258–74.

  • Deuchar, R. (2011) ‘“People look at us, the way we dress and they think we’re gangsters”: bonds, bridges, gangs and refugees – a qualitative study of inter-cultural social capital in Glasgow’, Journal of Refugee Studies, 24(4): 672–89.

  • Deuchar, R. (2013) Policing Youth Violence: Transatlantic Connections, London: IOE Press.

  • Deuchar, R. (2016) ‘Scottish youth gangs’, in H. Croall, G. Mooney and M. Munro (eds) Crime, Justice and Society in Scotland, London: Routledge, pp 67–81.

  • Deuchar, R. (2018) Gangs and Spirituality: Global Perspectives, Cham: Palgrave Macmillan.

  • Deuchar, R. (2020) ‘“I get more in contact with my soul”: gang disengagement, desistance and the role of spirituality’, Youth Justice, 20(1–2): 113–27.

  • Deuchar, R., Crichlow, V.J. and Fallick, S.W. (2021) Police–Community Relations in Times of Crisis: Decay and Reform in the Post-Ferguson Era, Bristol: Bristol University Press.

  • Deuchar, R., Harding, S., McLean, R. and Densley, J. (2020) ‘Deficit or credit? A comparative, qualitative study of gender agency and female gang membership in Los Angeles and Glasgow’, Crime and Delinquency, 66(8): 1087–114.

  • Deuchar, R. and Holligan, C. (2010) ‘Gangs, sectarianism and social capital: a qualitative study of young people in Scotland’, Sociology, 44(1): 13–30.

  • Deuchar, R., Miller, J. and Densley, J. (2019) ‘The lived experience of stop and search in Scotland: there are two sides to every story’, Police Quarterly, 22(4): 416–51.

  • Deuchar, R. and Weide, R.D. (2019) ‘Journeys in gang masculinity: insights from international case studies of interventions’, Deviant Behavior, 40(7): 851–65.

  • Devine, T. (2017) Independence of Union? Scotland’s Past and Scotland’s Present, London: Penguin Books.

  • Dodd, V. (2020) ‘Police call for ban on anonymous pay-as-you-go phones’, The Guardian, [online] 10 January, Available from: [Accessed 17 September 2020].

  • Downes, D.M. (1966) The Delinquent Solution, London: Routledge and Kegan Paul.

  • Eades, C., Grimshaw, R., Silvestri, A. and Solomon, E. (2007) ‘“Knife crime”: a review of evidence and policy’, London: Centre for Crime and Justice.

  • Esbensen, F.A. and Maxson, C.L. (eds) (2011) Youth Gangs in International Perspective: Results from the Eurogang Program of Research, New York: Springer.

  • Evening Telegraph (2019) ‘Dealers who flooded streets of Dundee with heroin and cocaine jailed for 21 years’, [online] 13 December, available from: [Accessed 15 September 2020].

  • Farrall, S. and Calverley, A. (2006) Understanding Desistance from Crime, London: Open University Press.

  • Fileborn, B. (2016) Reclaiming the Night-Time Economy: Unwanted Sexual Attention in Pubs and Clubs, London: Palgrave Macmillan.

  • Findlay, D. (2019) ‘Former fugitive is 10th and final member of Scotland’s top crime gang to be jailed’, Daily Record, [online] 17 May, Available from: [Accessed 6 November 2019].

  • Findlay, R. (2012) Caught in the Crossfire: Scotland’s Deadliest Drugs War, Edinburgh: Birlinn.

  • Finkelhor, D., Shattuck, A., Turner, H. and Hamby, S. (2015) ‘A revised inventory of adverse childhood experiences’, Child Abuse & Neglect, 48: 13–21.

  • Finn, G.P.T. (2000) ‘A culture of prejudice: promoting pluralism in education for a change’, in T.M. Devine (ed) Scotland’s Shame? Bigotry and Sectarianism in Modern Scotland, Edinburgh: Mainstream, pp 53–88.

  • Forsyth, A.J.M. (2008) ‘Banning glassware from nightclubs in Glasgow (Scotland): observed impacts, compliance and patron’s views’, Alcohol and Alcoholism, 43(1): 111–17.

  • Fraser, A. (2013) ‘Street habitus; gangs, territorialism and social change in Glasgow’, Journal of Youth Studies, 16(8): 970–85.

  • Fraser, A. (2015) Urban Legends, Oxford: Oxford University Press.

  • Fraser, A. and Piacentini, T. (2013) ‘We belong to Glasgow: the thirdspaces of youth “gangs” and asylum seeker, refugee and migrant groups’, in C. Phillips and C. Webster (eds) New Directions in Race, Ethnicity and Crime, London: Routledge: pp 65–89.

  • Frisby-Osman, S. and Wood, J.L. (2020) ‘Rethinking how we view gang members: an examination into affective, behavioral, and mental health predictors of UK gang-involved youth’, Youth Justice, 20(1–2): 93–112.

  • Frisher, M., Crome, I., McLeod, J., Bloor, R. and Hickman, M. (2007) ‘Predictive factors for illicit drug use among young people: a literature review’, Home Office: HM Government.

  • Gadd, D. and Farrall, S. (2004) ‘Criminal careers, desistance and subjectivity’, Theoretical Criminology, 8(2): 23–156.

  • Giordano, P.C, Cernkovich, S.A. and Rudolph, J.L. (2002) ‘Gender, crime, and desistance: toward a theory of cognitive transformation’, American Journal of Sociology, 107(4): 990–1064.

  • GIP (Glasgow Indicators Project) (2021) ‘Understanding Glasgow’, [online], Available from: [Accessed 11 February 2021].

  • Girling, E., Loader, I. and Sparks, R. (2013) Crime and Social Change in Middle England: Questions of Order in an English Town, Hoboken, NJ: Taylor and Francis.

  • Glasgow City Council (2021) The Ripple Effect: How Does Alcohol Affect Communities in the City of Glasgow?, Glasgow: Glasgow City Council.

  • Glazzard, J. and Stones, S. (2019) ‘Social media and young people’s mental health’, in S. Stones, K. Glazzard and M.R. Muzio (eds) Selected Topics in Child and Adolescent Mental Health, London: IntechOpen.

  • Goldson, B. (ed) (2011) Youth in Crisis?: ‘Gangs’, Territoriality and Violence, New York: Routledge.

  • Goodall, C.A., Neville, F.G., Williams, D.J. and Donnelly, P.D. (2016) ‘Preliminary research informing policy on remote alcohol monitoring in criminal justice: the Scottish experience’, International Journal of Public Health, 61(8): 865–72.

  • Goodall, K., McKerrell, S., Markey, J., Millar, S.R. and Richardson, M.J. (2015) ‘Sectarianism in Scotland: a “west of Scotland” problem, a patchwork or a cobweb?’, Scottish Affairs, 24(3): 288–307.

  • Gormally, S. and Coburn, A. (2014) ‘Finding nexus: connecting youth work and research practices’, British Educational Research Journal, 40(5): 869–85.

  • Graham, W. (2016) ‘Global concepts, local contexts: a case study of international criminal justice policy transfer in violence reduction’, PhD thesis, Glasgow: Glasgow Caledonian University.

  • Graham, W. and Robertson, A. (2021) ‘Exploring criminal justice policy transfer models and mobilities using a case study of violence reduction’, Criminology & Criminal Justice, [Online] 8 February, Available from: [Accessed 5 July 2021].

  • Grund, T.U. and Densley, J.A. (2012) ‘Ethnic heterogeneity in the activity and structure of a black street gang’, European Journal of Criminology, 9(4): 388–406.

  • Gunter, A. (2017) Race, Gangs and Youth Violence: Policy, Prevention and Policing, Bristol: Policy Press.

  • Hall, S., Critcher, C., Jefferson, T., Clark, J. and Roberts, T. (1978) Policing the Crisis: Mugging, the State and Law and Order, London: Macmillan.

  • Hallsworth, S. (2011) ‘Gangland Britain? Realities, fantasies and industry’, in B. Goldson (ed) Youth in Crisis?, London: Routledge, pp 183–98.

  • Hallsworth, S. (2013) The Gang and Beyond: Interpreting Violent Street Worlds, London: Palgrave Macmillan.

  • Hallsworth, S. and Brotherton, D. (2011) Urban Disorder and Gangs: A Critique and a Warning, London: Runnymede trust.

  • Hallsworth, S. and Young, T. (2008) ‘Gang talk and gang talkers: a critique’, Crime, Media and Culture, 4(2): 175–95.

  • Hamilton-Smith, N., Malloch, M., Ashe, S., Rutherford, A.C. and Bradford, B. (2015) ‘Community impact of public processions’, Edinburgh: Scottish Government.

  • Harding, S. (2014) The Street Casino: Survival in Violent Street Gangs, Bristol: Policy Press.

  • Harding, S. (2020) County Lines: Exploitation and Drug Dealing Amongst Urban Street Gangs, Bristol: Policy Press.

  • Harding, S., Deuchar, R., Densley, J. and McLean, R. (2019) ‘A typology of street robbery and gang organization: insights from qualitative research in Scotland’, British Journal of Criminology, 59(4): 879–97.

  • Healy, D. (2012) The Dynamics of Desistance: Charting Pathways Through Change, New York: Routledge.

  • Herbert, I. (2016) ‘Old Firm derby: don’t let Celtic fool you – they are glad that Rangers are back in the Scottish Premiership’, The Independent, [online] 8 September, Available from: [Accessed 25 October 2020].

  • HM Government (2018) ‘Serious Violence Strategy’, [online], Available from: [Accessed 23 October 2019].

  • Holligan, C. (2013) ‘Breaking the code of the street: extending Elijah Anderson’s encryption of violent street governance to retaliation in Scotland’, Journal of Youth Studies, 18(5): 634–48.

  • Holligan, C. (2015) ‘Disenfranchised violent young offenders in Scotland: using actor-network theory to explore an aetiology of knife crime’, Sociology, 49(1): 123–38.

  • Holligan, C. and Deuchar, R. (2009) ‘Territorialities in Scotland: perceptions of young people in Glasgow’, Journal of Youth Studies, 12(6): 727–42.

  • Holligan, C. and Deuchar, D. (2015) ‘What does it mean to be a man? Psychosocial undercurrents in the voices of incarcerated (violent) Scottish teenage offenders’, Criminology & Criminal Justice, 15(3): 361–77.

  • Holligan, C., McLean, R. and Deuchar, R. (2017) ‘Weapon-carrying among young men in Glasgow: street scripts and signals in uncertain social spaces’, Critical Criminology, 25(1): 137–51.

  • Holligan, C., McLean, R. and McHugh, R. (2020) ‘Exploring County Lines drug distribution in Scotland’, Journal of Youth Studies (Special Issue: Street Gangs, Group Offending and Violence), 20(1–2), 50–63.

  • Holligan, C., McLean, R. and Rice, G. (2019) ‘Scotland’s drug criminality: organised crime group(s) and illegal governance’, Deviant Behavior, 42(4): 518–31.

  • Holligan, C. and Raab, G. (2010) ‘Inter-Sectarian Couples in the 2001 Census’, Scottish Longitudinal Study, Research Working Paper 7, [online] 15 January, Available from: [Accessed 25 October 2020].

  • House of Commons (2009) ‘Home Affairs Committee – seventh report: knife crime’, [online], Available from: [Accessed 16 August 2021].

  • House of Commons Library (2019) ‘Knife crime statistics’, [online], Available from: [Accessed 23 October 2019].

  • Irwin-Rogers, K. (2019) ‘Illicit drug markets, consumer capitalism and the rise of social media: a toxic trap for young people’, Critical Criminology, 27(4): 591–610.

  • Irwin-Rogers, K., Densley, J. and Pinkney, C. (2018) ‘Gang violence and social media’, in J. Ireland, C.A. Ireland and P. Birch (eds) The Routledge International Handbook of Human Aggression, London: Routledge, pp 400–10.

  • ISTD Scottish Branch: Glasgow Working Party (1970) ‘The carrying of offensive weapons’, British Journal of Criminology, 10(3): 255–69.

  • Jeffrey, R. (2002) Glasgow’s Hard Men: True Crime from the Files of the Herald, Evening Times and Sunday Herald, Edinburgh: Black and White Publishing.

  • Kelly, Y., Zilanawala, A., Booker, C. and Sacker, A. (2018) ‘Social media use and adolescent mental health: findings from the UK Millennium Cohort Study’, EClinicalMedicine, 6: 59–68.

  • Kennedy T.M. and Ceballo R. (2016) ‘Emotionally numb: desensitization to community violence exposure among urban youth’, Developmental Psychology, 52(5): 778–89.

  • Khamis, S., Ang, L. and Welling, R. (2017) ‘Self-branding, “micro-celebrity” and the rise of social media influencers’, Celebrity Studies, 8(2): 191–208.

  • King, D., Delfabbro, P. and Griffiths, M. (2010) ‘The convergence of gambling and digital media: implications for gambling in young people’, Journal of Gambling Studies, 26(2): 175–87.

  • Kintrea, K., Bannister, J., Pickering, J., Suruki, N. and Reid, M. (2008) ‘Young people and territoriality in British cities’, York: Joseph Rowntree Foundation.

  • Klein, M.W. (2001) ‘Resolving the Eurogang paradox’, in M.W. Klein, H.J. Kerner, C. Maxson and E.G.M. Weitekamp (eds) The Eurogang Paradox: Street Gangs and Youth Groups in the U.S. and Europe, London: Kluwer, pp 7–19.

  • Klein, M.W., Kerner, H.J. Maxson, C.L. and Weitekamp, E.G.M. (eds) (2001) The Eurogang Paradox: Street Gangs and Youth Groups in the U.S. and Europe, London: Kluwer.

  • Klein, M.W. and Maxson, C.L. (2010) Street Gang Patterns and Policies, Oxford: Oxford University Press.

  • Klein, M.W., Weerman, F.M. and Thornberry, T.P. (2006) ‘Street gang violence in Europe’, European Journal of Criminology, 3(4): 413–37.

  • Larkin, H., Felitti, V.J. and Anda, R.F. (2014) ‘Social work and adverse childhood experiences research: implications for practice and health policy’, Social Work in Public Health, 29(1): 1–16.

  • Laub, J.H. and Sampson, R.J. (1993) ‘Turning points in the life course: why change matters to the study of crime’, Criminology, 31(3): 301–25.

  • Lauger, T.R. and Densley, J.A. (2018) ‘Broadcasting badness: violence, identity, and performance in the online gang rap scene’, Justice Quarterly, 35(5): 816–41.

  • Law, A. and Mooney, G. (2012) ‘The decivilizing process and urban working-class youth in Scotland’, Social Justice, 38(4): 106–26.

  • Lawson, R. (2013) ‘The construction of “tough” masculinity: negotiation, alignment and rejection’, Gender and Language, 7(3): 369–95.

  • Leap, J. (2012) Jumped in: What Gangs Taught Me About Violence, Drugs, Love and Redemption, Boston, MA: Beacon Press.

  • Little, M. and Steinberg, L. (2006) ‘Psychosocial correlates of adolescent drug dealing in the inner city: potential roles of opportunity, conventional commitments, and maturity’, Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency, 43(4): 357–86.

  • McAra, L. and McVie, S. (2007) ‘Youth justice? The impact of system contact on patterns of desistance from offending’, European Journal of Criminology, 4(3): 315–45.

  • McAra, L. and McVie, S. (2016) ‘Understanding youth violence: the mediating effects of gender, poverty and vulnerability’, Journal of Criminal Justice, 45: 71–7.

  • McArthur, A. and Kingsley-Long, H. (1935) No Mean City, London: Longmans, Green & Co.

  • McClintock, F.H. and Wikström, P-O.H. (1990) ‘Violent crime in Scotland and Sweden: rate, structure and trends’, British Journal of Criminology, 30(2): 207–28.

  • McEachran, J. (2003) ‘The murder city – Glasgow is the western European killing capital’, The Daily Record, [online] 27 November, Available from: [Accessed 17 September 2020].

  • McLean, R. (2017) ‘An evolving gang model in contemporary Scotland’, Deviant Behavior, 39(3): 309–21.

  • McLean, R. (2019) Gangs, Drugs and (Dis)Organised Crime, Bristol: Bristol University Press.

  • McLean, R. (forthcoming) Exploring the Recent History of Gang Evolution in the UK, New York: Springer.

  • McLean, R. and Densley, J. (2020) Scotland’s Gang Members: Life and Crime in Glasgow, London: Palgrave Macmillan.

  • McLean, R., Densley, J.A. and Deuchar, R. (2019a) ‘Situating gangs within Scotland’s illegal drugs market(s)’, Trends in Organized Crime, 21(2): 147–71.

  • McLean, R., Deuchar, R., Harding, S. and Densley, J. (2019b) ‘Putting the “street” in gang: place and space in the organisation of Scotland’s drug selling gangs’, British Journal of Criminology, 59(2): 396–415.

  • McLean, R. and Holligan, C. (2018) ‘The semiotics of the evolving gang masculinity and Glasgow’, Social Sciences, 7(8): 125.

  • McLean, R., Robinson, G. and Densley, J. (2020) County Lines: Criminal Networks and Evolving Drug Markets in Britain, London: Springer.

  • McMenemy, D., Poulter A. and O’Loan S. (2005) ‘A robust methodology for investigating Old Firm-related sectarianism online’, International Journal of Web Based Communities, 1(4): 488–503.

  • MacMillan, J. (2000) ‘Scotland’s shame’, in T.M. Devine (ed) Scotland’s Shame? Bigotry and Sectarianism in Modern Scotland, Edinburgh: Mainstream, pp 13–24.

  • McPhee, I., Holligan, C., McLean, R. and Deuchar, R. (2019) ‘Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde: the strange case of the two selves of clandestine drug users’, Drugs and Alcohol Today, 19(2): 133–46.

  • McPherson, C. (2020) ‘“It’s just so much better than school”: the redemptive qualities of further education and youth work for working-class young people in Edinburgh, Scotland’, Journal of Youth Studies, 23(3): 307–22.

  • Malloch, M. and McIvor, G. (2013) ‘Criminal justice responses to drug related crime in Scotland’, International Journal of Drug Policy, 24(1): 69–77.

  • Mares, D. (1999) ‘Globalization and gangs: the Manchester case’, Focaal, 35: 135–55.

  • Mares, D. (2001) ‘Gangstas or lager louts? Working class street gangs in Manchester’, in M.W. Klein, H.J. Kerner, C. Maxson and E.G.M. Weitekamp (eds) The Eurogang Paradox: Street Gangs and Youth Groups in the U.S. and Europe, London: Kluwer, pp 153–64.

  • Maruna, S. (2001) Making Good: How Ex-Convicts Reform and Rebuild Their Lives, Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.

  • Matza, D. (1967) Delinquency and Drift, New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction Publishers.

  • Mays, J.B. (1954) Growing Up in the City, Liverpool: Liverpool University Press.

  • Measham, F. and Shiner, M. (2009) ‘The legacy of “normalization”: the role of classical and contemporary criminological theory in understanding young people’s drug use’, International Journal of Drug Policy, 20(6): 502–8.

  • Medina, J., Cebulla, A., Ross, A., Shute, J. and Aldridge, J. (2013) Children and Young People in Gangs: A Longitudinal Analysis, London: Nuffield Foundation.

  • Melde, C. and Esbensen, F.-A. (2013) ‘Gangs and violence: disentangling the impact of gang membership on the level and nature of offending’, Journal of Quantitative Criminology, 29(2): 143–66.

  • Melde, C., Esbensen, F.-A. and Carson, D.C. (2016) ‘Gang membership and involvement in violence among US adolescents: a test of construct validity’, in C.L. Maxson and F.-A. Esbensen (eds) Gang Transitions and Transformations in an International Context, Cham: Springer, pp 33–50.

  • Mental Health Foundation (2020) Coronavirus Scotland: The Divergence of Mental Health Experiences during the Pandemic, [online], Available from: [Accessed 25 October].

  • Messerschmidt, J. (2002) ‘On gang girls, gender and a structured action theory: a reply to Miller’, Theoretical Criminology, 6(4): 461–75.

  • Messerschmidt, J. (2005) ‘Men, masculinities and crime’, in M.S. Kimmel, J. Hearn and R.W. Connell (eds) Handbook of Studies on Men and Masculinities, London: Sage, pp 196–212.

  • Messerschmidt J.W. (1994) ‘Schooling, masculinities and youth crime’, in T. Newburn and E.A. Stanko (eds) Just Boys Doing Business?, New York: Routledge, pp 81–100.

  • Miller, J. (2015) ‘In every scheme there is a team: a grounded theory of how young people grow in and out of gangs in Glasgow’, PhD thesis, Paisley: University of the West of Scotland.

  • Moran, K. (2015) ‘Social structure and bonhomie: emotions in the youth street gang’, British Journal of criminology, 55(3): 556–77.

  • Mowat, J.G. (2019) ‘Exploring the impact of social inequality and poverty on the mental health and wellbeing and attainment of children and young people in Scotland’, Improving Schools, 22(3): 204–23.

  • Muggah, R. (2012) ‘Researching the urban dilemma: urbanization, poverty and violence’, Ottawa: IDRC.

  • Muncie, J. (2014) Youth and Crime (4th edn), London: Sage.

  • Murray, B. (2000) The Old Firm: Sectarianism, Sport and Society in Scotland, Edinburgh: John Donald.

  • Murray, B. (2003) Bhoys, Bears and Bigotry: The Old Firm in the New Age, Edinburgh: Mainstream.

  • National Records of Scotland (2019) ‘Drug related deaths in Scotland in 2018’, [online], Available from: [Accessed 15 August 2021].

  • National Records of Scotland (2020) ‘Drug related deaths in Scotland in 2019’, [online], Available from: [Accessed 31 January 2021].

  • National Records of Scotland (2021) ‘Drug related deaths in Scotland in 2020’, [online], Available from: [Accessed 15 August 2021].

  • NCA (National Crime Agency) (2015) ‘NCA intelligence assessment: County Lines, gangs and safeguarding’, London: NCA.

  • Netto, G., Arshad, R., de Lima, P., Almeida, Dinez, F., McEwan, M., Patel, V. and Syed, R. (2001) ‘Audit on research on minority ethnic issues in Scotland from a “race” perspective’, Edinburgh: Scottish Executive.

  • NFO Social Research (2003) ‘Sectarianism in Glasgow: final report’, Glasgow: Glasgow City Council.

  • NKBL (No Knives, Better Lives) (2019) ‘Ten Tears of No Knives, Better Lives’, Edinburgh: Scottish Government.

  • Oatley, G. and Crick, T. (2015) ‘Measuring UK crime gangs: a social network problem’, Social Network Analysis and Mining, 5(1):1–16.

  • OCSI (Oxford Consultants for Social Inclusion) (2016) ‘Scottish index of multiple deprivation: understanding local areas and targeting resources’, [online], Available from: [Accessed 10 February 2021].

  • ODS Consulting (2008) ‘Glasgow Community Planning Partnership residents’ survey: summary report’, [online], Available from: [Accessed 11 February 2021].

  • Office of National Statistics (2019) ‘Crime in England and Wales: year ending March 2019’, [online], Available from: [Accessed 23 October 2019].

  • Ouellet, M., Bouchard, M. and Charett, Y. (2019) ‘One gang dies, another gains?: the network dynamics of criminal group persistence’, Criminology, 57: 5–13.

  • Paice, L. (2008) ‘Overspill policy and the Glasgow slum clearance project in the twentieth century: from one nightmare to another?’, [online], Available from: [Acccessed 21 October 2021].

  • Palasinski, M. and Riggs, D.W. (2012) ‘Young white British men and knife-carrying in public: discourses of masculinity, protection and vulnerability’, Critical Criminology, i0(4): 463–76.

  • Palinkas, L.A., Horwitz, S.M., Green, C.A., Wisdom, J.P., Duan, N. and Hoagwood, K. (2015) ‘Purposeful sampling for qualitative data collection and analysis in mixed method implementation research’, Administration and Policy in Mental Health and Mental Health Services Research, 42(5): 533–44.

  • Palmer, S. (2009) ‘The origins and emergence of youth “gangs” in a British inner-city neighbourhood’, Safer Communities, 8(2): 17–26.

  • Parker, H., Williams, L. and Aldridge, J. (2002) ‘The normalization of “sensible” recreational drug use: further evidence from the North West England longitudinal study’, Sociology, 36(4): 941–64.

  • Patrick, J. (1973) A Glasgow Gang Observed, London: Eyre Methuen.

  • Patton, D.U., Eschmann, R.D. and Butler, D.A. (2013) ‘Internet banging: new trends in social media, gang violence, masculinity and hip hop’, Computers in Human Behavior, 29(5): A54–A59.

  • Pinkney, C. and Robinson-Edwards, S. (2018) ‘Gangs, music and the mediatisation of crime: expressions, violations and validations’, Safer Communities, 9 April.

  • Pitts, J. (2008) Reluctant Gangsters: The Changing Shape of Youth Crime, London: Willan.

  • Pitts, J. (2012) ‘Reluctant criminologists: criminology, ideology and the violent youth gang’, Youth Policy, 109: 27–45.

  • Pitts, J. (2020) ‘Black young people and gang involvement in London’, Youth Justice, 20(1–2): 146–58.

  • Putnam, R. (2000) Bowling Alone: The Collapse and Revival of American Community, New York: Simon & Schuster.

  • Pyrooz, D. (2014) ‘“From your first cigarette to your last dyin’ day”: the patterning of gang membership in the life-course’, Journal of Quantitative Criminology, 30(2): 349–72.

  • Pyrooz, D.C. and Decker, S.H. (2011) ‘Motives and methods for leaving the gang: understanding the process of gang desistance’, Journal of Criminal Justice, 39(5): 417–25.

  • Pyrooz, D.C., Decker, S.H. and Moule, R.K. (2013) ‘Criminal and routine activities in online settings: gangs, offenders, and the internet’, Justice Quarterly, 32(3): 471–99.

  • Pyrooz, D.C. and Mitchell, M.M. (2015) ‘Little gang research, big gang research’, in S.H. Decker and D.C. Pyrooz (eds) The Handbook of Gangs (1st edn), New York: John Wiley & Sons, pp 28–58.

  • Raab, G. and Holligan, C. (2012) ‘Sectarianism: myth or social reality? Inter-sectarian partnerships in Scotland, evidence from the Scottish Longitudinal Study’, Ethnic and Racial Studies, 35(11): 1934–54.

  • Rahman, M., McLean, R., Deuchar, R. and Densley, J. (2020) ‘Who are the enforcers? The motives and methods of muscle for hire in West Scotland and the West Midlands’, Trends in Organised Crime, [online] 21 May, Available from: [Accessed 5 July 2021].

  • Reid, J.M. (2009) ‘Excess mortality in the Glasgow conurbation: exploring the existence of a Glasgow Effect’, PhD thesis, Glasgow: University of Glasgow.

  • Reidy, D.E., Kearns, M.C., DeGue, S., Lilienfeld, S.O., Massetti, G. and Kiehl, K.A. (2015) ‘Why psychopathy matters: implications for public health and violence prevention’, Aggression and Violent Behavior, 24: 214–25.

  • Reilly, P. (2000) ‘Kicking with the left foot: being Catholic in Scotland’, in T.M. Devine (ed) Scotland’s Shame? Bigotry and Sectarianism in Modern Scotland, Edinburgh: Mainstream, pp 29–39.

  • Rice, D. (2013) ‘Alcohol outlet density, deprivation and crime in Scotland’, MSc thesis, Edinburgh: University of Edinburgh.

  • Rideout, V. and Fox, S. (2018) ‘Digital health practices, social media use, and mental wellbeing among teens and young adults in the US’, Providence St Joseph Health Digital Commons, Articles, Abstracts and Reports, 1093.

  • Robinson, G., McLean, R. and Densley, J. (2019) ‘Working County Lines: child criminal exploitation and illicit drug dealing in Glasgow and Merseyside’, International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology, 63(5): 594–711.

  • Robinson, R. (2019) ‘Gangs, County Lines and child criminal exploitation: a case study of Merseyside’, PhD thesis, Ormskirk: Edge Hill University.

  • Ruggiero, V. (2010) ‘Unintended consequences: changes in organised drug supply in the UK’, Trends in Organized Crime, 13(1): 46–59.

  • Samara, T.R. (2005) ‘Youth, crime and urban renewal in the Western Cape’, Journal of South African Studies, 31(1): 209–27.

  • Sampson, R.J. (2011) Great American City: Chicago and the Enduring Neighbourhood Effect, Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

  • Sampson, R.J. and Laub, J.H. (2005) ‘A life-course view of the development of crime’, The Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, 602(1): 12–45.

  • Sandberg, S. and Pederson, W. (2011) Street Capital: Black Cannabis Dealers in a White Welfare State, Bristol: Policy Press.

  • ScotPHO (2021) ‘Suicide: Scottish trends’, [online], Available from: [Accessed 18 August 2021].

  • Scott, P. (1956) ‘Gangs, delinquency and the social order’, in J.F. Short (ed) Delinquency, Crime and Society, Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

  • Scottish Drugs Forum (2019) ‘Warning over “street valium” in Glasgow as deaths increase’, [online], Available from: [Accessed 16 February 2021].

  • Scottish Government (2009) ‘Letting our communities flourish: a strategy for tackling serious organised crime in Scotland’, Edinburgh: Scottish Government.

  • Scottish Government (2012) ‘Scottish index of multiple deprivation 2012’, [online] 18 December, Available from: [Accessed 11 February 2021].

  • Scottish Government (2015) ‘Scotland’s serious organised crime strategy’, Edinburgh: Scottish Government.

  • Scottish Government (2016) ‘Scotland serious organised crime strategy: annual review’, Edinburgh: Scottish Government.

  • Scottish Government (2018) ‘Recorded crime in Scotland: handling offensive weapons’, [online] 26 June, Available from: [Accessed 11 June 2020].

  • Scottish Government (2019a) ‘Recorded crime in Scotland: attempted murder and serious assault, 2008–09 and 2017–18’, [online] 4 June, Available from: [Accessed 11 June 2020].

  • Scottish Government (2019b) ‘Recorded crime in Scotland, 2018–19’, [online] 24 September, Available from: [Accessed 9 June 2020].

  • Scottish Government (2019c) ‘Scottish crime and justice survey 2017/18: main findings’, [online] 26 March, Available from: [Accessed 10 June 2020].

  • Scottish Government (2019d) ‘Serious organised crime (SOC) in Scotland: a summary of the evidence’, [online] 8 December, Available from: [Accessed 6 November 2019].

  • Scottish Government (2020a) ‘Coronavirus (Covid-19): impact on children, young people and families – evidence summary October 2020’, [online] 24 November, Available from: [Accessed 31 January 2021].

  • Scottish Government (2020b) ‘Recorded crime in Scotland, April 2020’, [online] 4 June, Available from: [Accessed 15 October 2020].

  • Scottish Government (2020c) ‘Recorded crime in Scotland, 2019–20’, [online] 29 September, Available from: [Accessed 22 February 2021].

  • Scottish Government (2020d) ‘Scottish crime and justice survey 2018/19: main findings’, [online] 16 June, Available from: [Accessed 25 February 2021].

  • Scottish Government (2020e) ‘Scottish index of multiple deprivation 2020’, [online], Available from: [Accessed 11 February 2021].

  • Sercombe, H. (2010) Youth Work Ethics, London: Sage.

  • Shabir, G., Hameed, Y., Safdar, G. and Gilani, S. (2014) ‘The impact of social media on youth: a case study of Bahawalpur City’, Asian Journal of Social Sciences & Humanities, 3(4): 132–51.

  • Shepard, J., Irish, M., Scully, C. and Leslie, I. (1989) ‘Alcohol consumption among victims of violence and among comparable UK populations’, British Journal of Addiction, 84(9): 1045–51.

  • Sillitoe, Sir P. (1956) Cloak Without Dagger, London: Pan Books.

  • Sim, D. and Bowes, A. (2007) ‘Asylum seekers in Scotland: the accommodation of diversity’, Social Police & Administration, 41(7): 729–46.

  • Skott, S. and McVie, S. (2019) ‘Reduction in homicide and violence in Scotland is largely explained by fewer gangs and less knife crime’, AQMeN Research Briefing 13, Edinburgh: University of Edinburgh.

  • Smith, D.J. (2006) ‘Social inclusion and early desistance from crime’, Edinburgh Study of Youth Transitions no. 12, Edinburgh: Centre for Law and Society, University of Edinburgh.

  • Smithson, H., Monchuk, L. and Armitage, R. (2011) ‘Gang member: who says? Definitional and structural issues’, in F.A. Esbensen and C.L. Maxson (eds) Youth Gangs in International Perspective: Results from the Eurogang Program of Research, New York: Springer, pp 53–68.

  • Smithson, H., Ralphs, R. and Williams, P. (2013) ‘Used and abused: the problematic usage of gang terminology in the United Kingdom and its implications for ethnic minority youth’, British Journal of Criminology, 53(1): 113–28.

  • Søgaard, T.F., Kolind, T., Thylstrup, B. and Deuchar, R. (2016) ‘Desistance and the micro-narrative construction in a Danish rehabilitation centre’, Criminology and Criminal Justice, 16(1): 99–108.

  • Squires, P., Silvestri, A., Grimshaw, R. and Solomon, E. (2008) ‘Street weapons commission: guns, knives and street violence’, London: Centre for Crime and Justice Studies.

  • Stefanakis, H. (2008) ‘Caring and compassion when working with offenders of crime and violence’, Violence and Victims, 23(5): 652–61.

  • Stelfox, P. (1998) ‘Policing lower levels of organised crime in England and Wales’, The Howard Journal, 37(4): 393–406.

  • Storrod, M.L. and Densley, J.A. (2017) ‘“Going viral” and “going country”: the expressive and instrumental activities of street gangs on social media’, Journal of Youth Studies, 20(6): 677–96.

  • Strauss, A. and Corbin, J. (1998) Basics of Qualitative Research Techniques, Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.

  • SVRU (Scottish Violence Reduction Unit) (2011) ‘The violence must stop: Glasgow’s Community Initiative to Reduce Violence: second year report’, Glasgow: SVRU.

  • Taylor, T.J., Freng, A. and Esbensen, F.-A. (2008) ‘Youth gang membership and serious victimisation: the importance of lifestyles and routine activities’, Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 23(10): 1441–64.

  • Thrasher, F. (1927) The Gang: A Study of 1313 Gangs in Chicago, Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

  • Torjesen, I. (2018) ‘Can public health strategies tackle London’s rise in fatal violence?’, BMJ, 361: 1–2.

  • UK Crime Statistics (2020) ‘View the crimes in your area’, [online], Available from: [Accessed 4 February 2021].

  • Understanding Glasgow (2020) ‘Food Banks’, [online], Available from: [Accessed 7 June 2020].

  • Valasik, M. (2014) Saving the World, One Neighborhood at a Time: The Role of Civil Gang Injunctions at Influencing Gang Behavior, Irvine: University of California, Irvine.

  • Van Gemert, F., Peterson, D. and Lien, I.L. (eds) (2008) Street Gangs, Migration and Ethnicity, New York: Routledge.

  • Vaswani, N. (2018) Adverse Childhood Experiences in Children at High Risk of Harm to Others: A Gendered Perspective, Glasgow: Centre for Youth and Criminal Justice.

  • Wade, M., Horne, M., Parker, C., Puttick, H., Sobocinska, K. and Glossop, J. (2020) ‘Dundee’s struggle as the drug death capital of Europe’, The Times, [online] 26 February, Available from: [Accessed 2 September 2020].

  • Walker, G. (2016) The Labour Party in Scotland: Religion, the Union and the Irish Dimension, New York: Springer.

  • Walls, P. and R. Williams (2003) ‘Sectarianism at work: accounts of employment discrimination against Irish Catholics in Scotland’, Ethnic and Racial Studies, 26(4): 632–62.

  • Weaver, B. (2016) Offending and Desistance: The Importance of Social Relations, Abingdon: Routledge.

  • Weerman, E., Maxson, C, Esbensen, F., Aldridge, J., Medina, J. and van Gemert, F. (2009) ‘Eurogang programme manual: background, development and the use of the Eurogang instruments in multi-site, multi-method comparative research’, [online], Available from: [Accessed 23 October 2019].

  • Wetherell, M. and Edley, N. (1999) ‘Negotiating hegemonic masculinity: imaginary positions and psycho-discursive practices’, Feminism and Psychology, 9(3): 335–56.

  • White, R. (2013) Youth Gangs, Violence and Social Respect: Exploring the Nature of Provocations, London: Palgrave Macmillan.

  • Whittaker, A., Densley, J., Cheston, L., Tyrell, T., Higgins, M., Felix-Baptiste, C. and Havard, T. (2020) ‘“Reluctant Gangsters” revisited: the evolution of gangs from postcodes to profits’, European Journal on Criminal Policy and Research, 26(1): 1–22.

  • Whyte, B. (2004) ‘Responding to youth crime in Scotland’, British Journal of Social Work, 34(3): 395–411.

  • Williams, D.J., Currie, D., Linden, W. and Donelly, P. (2014) ‘Addressing gang-related violence in Glasgow: a preliminary pragmatic quasi-experimental evaluation of the Community Initiative to Reduce Violence (CIRV)’, Aggression and Violent Behavior, 19(6): 686–91.

  • Williams, P. and Clarke, B. (2018) ‘The Black criminal other as an object of social control’, Social Sciences, 7(11): 1–14.

  • Windle, J. and Briggs, D. (2015) ‘“It’s like working away for two weeks”: the harms associated with young drug dealers commuting from a saturated London drug market’, Crime Prevention and Community Safety, 17(2): 105–19.

  • Winton, A. (2005) ‘Youth, gangs and violence: analysing the social and spatial mobility of young people in Guatemala City’, Children’s Geographies, 3(2): 167–84.

  • Wittchen, H.U., Fröhlich, C., Behrendt, S., Günther, A., Rehm, J., Zimmermann, P., Lieb, R. and Perkonigg, A. (2007) ‘Cannabis use and cannabis use disorders and their relationship to mental disorders: a 10-year prospective-longitudinal community study in adolescents’, Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 88(Suppl 1): S60–S70.

  • Wolff, K.T., Baglivio, M.T., Klein, H.J., Piquero, A.R., DeLisi, M. and Howell, J.C. (2020) ‘Adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) and gang involvement among juvenile offenders: assessing the mediation effects of substance use and temperament deficits’, Youth Violence and Juvenile Justice, 18(1): 24–53.

  • Woods, H.C. and Scott, H. (2016) ‘Sleepyteens: social media use in adolescence is associated with poor sleep quality, anxiety, depression and low self-esteem’, Journal of Adolescence, 51: 41–9.

  • Wright, D. (2019) ‘Cannabis and tourism: a future UK industry perspective’, Journal of Tourism Futures, 5(3): 209–27.

  • Yablonsky, L. (1997) Gangsters: Fifty Years of Madness, Drugs, and Death on the Streets of America, New York: New York University Press.

  • Young, H. (2007) ‘Hard man, new man: re/composing masculinities in Glasgow, c. 1950–2000’, Oral History, 35(1): 71–81.

  • Young, T. and Trickett, L. (2017) ‘Gang girls: agency, sexual identity and victimization “on road”’, in K. Gildart, A. Gough-Yates, S. Lincoln, B. Osgergy, L. Robinson, J. Street, P. Webb and M. Worley (eds) Youth Culture and Social Change, Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, pp 231–59.

Content Metrics

May 2022 onwards Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 0 0 0
Full Text Views 5 5 0
PDF Downloads 2 2 0