Front Matter

This groundbreaking collection interrogates protest camps as sites of gendered politics and feminist activism.

Drawing on case studies that range from Cold War women-only peace camps to more recent mixed-gender examples from around the world, diverse contributors reflect on the recurrence of gendered, racialised and heteronormative structures in protest camps, and their potency and politics as feminist spaces.

While developing an intersectional analysis of the possibilities and limitations of protest camps, this book also tells new and inspiring stories of feminist organising and agency. It will appeal to feminist theorists and activists, as well as to social movement scholars.


Entanglements, Critiques and Re-Imaginings

Edited by

Catherine Eschle and Alison Bartlett

First published in Great Britain in 2023 by

Bristol University Press

University of Bristol

1–9 Old Park Hill




t: +44 (0)117 374 6645


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© Bristol University Press 2023

British Library Cataloguing in Publication Data

A catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library

ISBN 978-1-5292-2016-2 hardcover

ISBN 978-1-5292-2018-6 ePub

ISBN 978-1-5292-2019-3 ePdf

The right of Catherine Eschle and Alison Bartlett to be identified as editors of this work has been asserted by them in accordance with the Copyright, Designs and Patents Act 1988.

All rights reserved: no part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise without the prior permission of Bristol University Press.

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The statements and opinions contained within this publication are solely those of the editors and contributors and not of the University of Bristol or Bristol University Press. The University of Bristol and Bristol University Press disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any material published in this publication.

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Cover design: Andrew Corbett

Front cover image: Greenham Common Women’s Peace Camp by Janine Wiedel

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Printed and bound in Great Britain by CPI Group (UK) Ltd, Croydon, CR0 4YY


  • List of Figures and Tables v

  • Notes on Contributors vi

  • Acknowledgements xii

  1. 1Introduction: Feminism/Protest Camps

    Catherine Eschle and Alison Bartlett 1

  2. Part IGendered Power and Identities in Protest Camps
    1. 2Safe Spaces and Solidarity: Confronting Gendered Violence in the US Occupy Encampments

      Celeste Montoya 17

    2. 3The Pu‘u We Planted: (Re)birthing Refuge at Mauna Kea

      Māhealani Ahia and Kahala Johnson 37

    3. 4‘You Can’t Kill the Spirit’ (But You Can Try): Gendered Contestations and Contradictions at Menwith Hill Women’s Peace Camp

      Finn Mackay 61

    4. 5Women Activists, Gendered Power and Postfeminism in Taiwan’s ‘Sunflower Movement’

      Chia-Ling Yang 78

  3. Part IIFeminist Politics in and through Protest Camps
    1. 6The Feminist Movement in Turkey and the Women of the Gezi Park Protests

      Yeşim Arat 99

    2. 7Feminism and Protest Camps in Spain: From the Indignados to Feminist Encampments

      Emma Gómez Nicolau 115

    3. 8‘Why the Compost Toilets?’: Ecofeminist (Re)Generations at the HoriZone Ecovillage

      Joan Haran 135

  4. Part IIIFeminist Theorising and Protest Camps
    1. 9Protest Camps as ‘Homeplace’? Social Reproduction in and against Neoliberal Capitalism

      Catherine Eschle 157

    2. 10Project Democracy in Protest Camps: Caring, the Commons and Feminist Democratic Theory

      Anastasia Kavada 176

    3. 11Feminised and Decolonising Reoccupations, Re-existencias and Escrevivências: Learning from Women’s Movement Collectives in Northeast Brazil

      Sara C. Motta, Sandra Maria Gadelha de Carvalho, Claudiana Nogueira de Alencar and Mila Nayane da Silva 195

  5. Part IVThe Feminist Afterlives of Protest Camps
    1. 12Feminism on Aboriginal Land: The 1983 Pine Gap Women’s Peace Camp, Central Australia

      Alison Bartlett 217

    2. 13Remembering an Eco/Feminist Peace Camp

      Niamh Moore 235

    3. 14US Occupy Encampments and Their Feminist Tensions: Archiving for Contemporary ‘Big-Tent’ Social Movements

      Heather McKee Hurwitz and Anne Kumer 256

    4. 15Greenham Women Everywhere: A Feminist Experiment in Recreating Experience and Shaping Collective Memory

      Kate Kerrow, Rebecca Mordan, Vanessa Pini and Jill (Ray) Raymond, with Alison Bartlett and Catherine Eschle 273

  6. 16Conclusion: Rethinking Protest Camps, Rethinking Feminism

    Catherine Eschle and Alison Bartlett 294

List of Figures and Tables


  1. 3.1Puʻuhonua o Puʻuhuluhulu 38
  2. 3.2Hale Wahine and Hale Māhū at Puʻuhonua o Puʻuhuluhulu 42
  3. 3.3Authors at Puʻuhonua o Puʻuhuluhulu during the 2020 camp reunion 57
  4. 4.1Radomes at Menwith Hill, Yorkshire, November 2005 62
  5. 4.2Moonbow Corner camp as it was when I first visited 65
  6. 5.1Men centre stage in the Main Chamber during the 3/18 Movement parliamentary occupation 84
  7. 7.1The #OrditFeminista encampment, Valencia, 8 March 2020 124
  8. 7.2‘Free abortion’ demand poster on a tent 125
  9. 7.3Open activities in the camp 127
  10. 8.1Learning circle at the EAT residential course, 2016 141
  11. 8.2Starhawk teaching at the EAT residential course, 2016 141
  12. 9.1Occupy Glasgow tents in George Square 165
  13. 9.2Faslane Peace Camp 168
  14. 13.1Temperate rainforest with moss growing on branches 236
  15. 13.2Moonscape 237
  16. 13.3Logging truck 238
  17. 13.4Woman standing beside a tree in the forest 245


  1. 5.1Interview participants 81

Notes on Contributors

  • Māhealani Ahia is a PhD student in English (Hawaiʻi/Pacific Literature) at the University of Hawaiʻi Mānoa. Los Angeles-born, Māhea is a Kanaka Maoli artist, scholar, activist, songcatcher and storykeeper with lineal ties to Maui. With a background in theatre arts, writing and performance, she is committed to creating artistic and academic projects that empower Indigenous feminist decolonial research. She teaches Composition, Creative Writing and Indigenous Literatures, and edits Hawaiʻi Review and ʻŌiwi: A Native Hawaiian Journal. A founding member of Puʻuhuluhulu University and the caretaker of Hale Mauna Wahine at Mauna Kea, Māhea is co-organiser of the Mauna Kea Syllabus Project.

  • Claudiana Nogueira de Alencar currently works on the PhD Program in Applied Linguistics (POSLA) and on the Master’s in Education and Teaching (MAIE) at the State University of Ceará (UECE), Northeast Brazil. Claudiana coordinates the Program Viva a Palavra: dynamics of language, peace and resistance of Black youth of Fortaleza’s outskirts. Her research on Critical Linguistics and Decolonial Pedagogy focuses on the cultural grammars of resistance and survival of youth in the urban landscape.

  • Yeşim Arat is Professor of Political Science and International Relations at Boğaziçi University, Istanbul. She has published widely on the women’s movement and women’s political participation in Turkey, including Rethinking Islam and Liberal Democracy: Islamist Women in Turkish Politics (2005) and Violence Against Women in Turkey (with Ayse Gul Altınay, Punto, 2008) which won the 2008 Pen Duygu Asena Award. Most recently, she published Turkey: Between Democracy and Authoritarianism (with Şevket Pamuk, Cambridge University Press, 2019). Yeşim is a founding member of KADER (Association for the Support and Training of Women Candidates).

  • Alison Bartlett is Senior Honorary Research Fellow in English and Literary Studies (now retired) at The University of Western Australia. Her archival research on Pine Gap Women’s Peace Camp is widely published. She has also published books on Australian women’s writing, maternal culture, and flirting in the era of #metoo, and edited volumes on Australian feminist objects, museum studies, social memory, Australian literature, and more. She has worked with the National Museum of Australia on feminist activist legacies and memorialisation, been Chair of the Australian Women’s and Gender Studies Association, and Editor of Outskirts journal.

  • Sandra Maria Gadelha de Carvalho currently works in the Faculty of Philosophy and Education Dom Aureliano Matos (FAFIDAM) at the State University of Ceará (UECE), Northeast Brazil, where she co-founded and leads the Intercampus Masters in Education and Teaching (MAIE). Sandra’s research is on education and social movements, particularly in relation to popular education and Paulo Freire’s pedagogy. She was president of the Union of Higher Education Workers (2018–21) and has decades of experience working with pedagogical development and women’s solidarity economy projects in the Movimento Sem Terra (MST, Landless Workers’ Movement), Brazil.

  • Catherine Eschle is Senior Lecturer in the School of Government and Public Policy, University of Strathclyde, Glasgow. In addition to her award-winning research on feminism and protest camps, she has published extensively on feminist ‘anti-globalisation’ and anti-nuclear activism. Her publications include Making Feminist Sense of the Global Justice Movement (with Bice Maiguashca, Rowman & Littlefield, 2010) and a special section of International Affairs on ‘Feminist Interrogations of Global Nuclear Politics’ (co-edited with Shine Choi, 2022). Catherine has served as co-editor of the International Feminist Journal of Politics and on the executive of the feminist section of the International Studies Association.

  • Emma Gómez Nicolau is Lecturer in Sociology at the department of Philosophy and Sociology at the University Jaume I, Castelló de la Plana, Spain. Emma is part of the research group DESiRES – Sociology and Methodology Studies of Inequalities and Resistances, and has been a visiting scholar at Cardiff University (2013) and City, University of London (2021). Her research interests are feminisms, menstrual and health activism, and youth studies. She is author of Re-writing Women as Victims: From Theory to Practice (Routledge, 2020) and ‘Trajectories of Embodiment and Counter-Hegemonic Readings of the Body’ (Recerca: Revista de pensament i anàlisi, 2022).

  • Joan Haran is Honorary Research Fellow with the School of Social Sciences, Cardiff University. In 2022, she was an IASH-SSPS Research Fellow in the Institute for Advanced Studies in the Humanities, University of Edinburgh, working on the project Feminist Stories in Movement. She held a Marie Skłodowska-Curie Global Fellowship at the Centre for the Study of Women in Society, University of Oregon (2015–18) and at Cardiff University investigated the cross-fertilisation of fictional or artistic cultural productions with social and political activism. Publications include Genomic Fictions: Genes, Gender and Genre (University of Wales Press, forthcoming).

  • Heather McKee Hurwitz is Project Staff (faculty) in the Department of Hematology and Medical Oncology, Cleveland Clinic Taussig Cancer Institute, and Clinical Associate Professor of Medicine at Cleveland Clinic Lerner College of Medicine of Case Western Reserve University in Cleveland, Ohio. Heather has long participated in and studied social movements, including global justice, feminist and anti-war movements. Currently, her research focuses on cancer disparities, prevention, community outreach and the social determinants of health. She is author of Are We the 99%? The Occupy Movement, Feminism, and Intersectionality (Temple University Press, 2020), and led the creation of the open-source Occupy Archive.

  • Kahala Johnson is a PhD candidate in Indigenous Politics and Futures Studies, with a graduate certificate in Women’s Studies at the University of Hawaiʻi Mānoa. Their research focuses on gender queer and poly decolonial love. Kahala is from Nā Wai ʻEhā, Maui, and calls themself a Hina-kiaʻi-mauna for Haleakalā. Kahala also resided for eight months on Mauna Kea as a protector, served as founding member and coordinator for Puʻuhuluhulu University as well as co-founder and kahu (caretaker) of the Hale Mauna Māhū, recounted in the ‘Native Stories’ podcast interview series. Their dissertation examines decolonised futures of the Hawaiian Kingdom.

  • Anastasia Kavada is Reader in Media and Politics at the University of Westminster, UK, and leads the MA in Media, Campaigning and Social Change. Her research focuses on the relationship between digital media, advocacy groups and social movements. Interests include the role of the internet in alternative practices of democracy; processes of organising, decision-making and collective identity formation; and how online tools affect activists’ interaction with targets of their campaigns and the media. She has published on Occupy, Avaaz and the Indignant Movement in Greece, in journals such as Information, Communication & Society; Media, Culture and Society; and Communication Theory.

  • Kate Kerrow is a writer, researcher and lecturer, and the founder of the women’s history archive The Heroine Collective ( She co-created the Greenham Women Everywhere archive with Rebecca Mordan, collating the largest collection of oral testimonies from the 19-year campaign, and co-writing Out of the Darkness: Greenham Voices 1981–2000 (History Press, 2021) which brings these testimonies to print.

  • Anne Kumer is Interim Team Leader, Technical Services at Case Western Reserve University, Ohio. She collaborates with library departments, faculty and students to design and implement metadata schema that will enhance the search and discovery of electronic resources and digital collections. She develops long-term solutions for improved metadata management, enrichment and interoperability, with a vested interest in the changing landscape of item- and collection-level description as it relates to digital resources, advocating for consistent, equitable and inclusive cataloguing practices for library collections in all formats. A former archivist and taxonomist, she holds an MLIS from Simmons College.

  • Finn Mackay is Senior Lecturer in Sociology at the University of the West of England, Bristol, and the author of Radical Feminism: Activism in Movement (Palgrave, 2015) and Female Masculinities and the Gender Wars (Bloomsbury, 2021). Finn has been involved in feminist activism for over 20 years, founding the London Feminist Network in 2004 and working to revive the London Reclaim the Night march. Previously, Finn worked in policy on domestic abuse prevention education and anti-bullying. They are a Trustee of the Feminist Archive, an Ambassador for the Worker’s Educational Association and a Trustee of the British Sociological Association.

  • Celeste Montoya is Associate Professor in Women’s and Gender Studies at the University of Colorado, Boulder. Celeste’s research focuses on the ways in which women and racialised groups mobilise to enact change, and how these groups work within and outside of political institutions, domestically, transnationally and intersectionally. Her work is informed by studies of social movements, public policy, political institutions, political behaviour, and gender and race politics. She is author of From Global to Grassroots: The European Union, Transnational Advocacy, and Combating Violence Against Women (Oxford University Press, 2013) and co-editor of Gendered Mobilizations and Intersectional Challenges (ECPR Press, 2019).

  • Niamh Moore is an interdisciplinary feminist researcher in the School of Social and Political Sciences, University of Edinburgh, Scotland. She has published extensively on ecofeminism, including the book The Changing Nature of Eco/feminism: Telling Stories from Clayoquot Sound (UBC Press, 2015). She has also published widely on methods and ethics in research, co-authoring The Archive Project: Doing Archival Research in the Social Sciences and co-editing Participatory Research in More-than-Human Worlds (both Routledge, 2017). Her forthcoming book, DIY Academic Archiving (with Dunne, Hanlon and Karels) draws on the experience of creating the online archive, Clayoquot Lives: An Ecofeminist Story Web.

  • Rebecca Mordan is Artistic Director of Scary Little Girls ( and a graduate of the Bristol Old Vic. She founded Scary Little Girls in response to the dearth of diverse roles and opportunities for women in the performing arts. She is an experienced writer, director, producer and performer, with her work appearing in the BBC’s Cornish Voices Writers Room and on BBC Radio 4. With Kate Kerrow, she co-created Greenham Women Everywhere ( and co-authored Out of the Darkness: Greenham Voices 1981–2000 (History Press, 2021). Rebecca has been an anti-war and feminist activist since her childhood at Greenham Common.

  • Sara C. Motta is a proud Mestiza-salvaje of Colombia-Chibcha/Muisca, Eastern European Jewish and Celtic lineages currently living, loving and resisting on the unceded lands of the Awabakal and Worimi peoples, NSW, so-called Australia. She is mother, survivor of state and intimate violence, poet, bare-breasted philosopher, popular educator and Associate Professor at the University of Newcastle, NSW. Sara has long worked with resistances in, against and beyond heteronormative capitalist-coloniality from around the world. Her latest book, Liminal Subjects: Weaving (Our) Liberation (Rowman & Littlefield, 2018), won the 2020 best book award from the feminist section of the International Studies Association.

  • Vanessa Pini has 15 years’ experience of teaching drama and leading in schools. She is also a writer, performer and producer, and has staged her work at the Edinburgh Fringe Festival as well as in her home city of Leeds. She joined Scary Little Girls in April 2020 to work on the Greenham Women Everywhere project.

  • Jill (Ray) Raymond was an artist and hand weaver until Greenham Common Women’s Peace Camp sidetracked her life. In 1986 she moved into an ex-MoD truck to ‘spend more time with her family’ at Bloo Gate. She is now a trustee for Greenham Women Everywhere, interviews Greenham women for the archive and is involved in the promotion and outreach of the project.

  • Mila Nayane da Silva holds a degree in Pedagogy and a Master’s degree in Education and Teaching, both from Ceará State University, Brazil. Mila is a collaborating professor at LECAMPO in Dom Aureliano Matos Faculty of Philosophy, at the campus in Limoeiro Norte. She develops research with women from the Landless Rural Workers Movement (known as MST). She is currently studying curriculum design and teaching methods to integrate sexuality into early childhood education.

  • Chia-Ling Yang is Associate Professor at the Graduate Institute of Gender Education, National Kaohsiung Normal University, Taiwan. Her research interests include women in civil society, social movements in Taiwan and migrant Chinese workers in Sweden. She has published on the gender politics of the ‘Sunflower Movement’ in Social Movement Studies (2017).


This book was mostly written and put together during the COVID-19 pandemic, during which time our academic lives were sharply reduced – chiefly to our homes, the Zoom screen and email. As a result, the ideas in this book did not travel far while in development and our acknowledgements are briefer than they could have been. We would like to thank each other for being there when needed, and our authors for sticking with us in difficult times.

Pre-pandemic, in 2018, Alison spent study leave from the University of Western Australia as a Visiting Research Fellow at the Institute of Advanced Studies in the Humanities, University of Edinburgh, which enabled her to meet Catherine, Joan and Niamh in person and spend some time talking about mutual interests. Catherine thanks her colleagues in the Strathclyde University Feminist Research Network (SUFRN) for inviting Alison to give a talk on her research into the Pine Gap camp and for coming along to the ‘brown bag’ research-in-progress session to give feedback on the work that was eventually to morph into Chapter 9. Subsequently, a group of us made it to the European Conference on Politics and Gender held in Amsterdam in July 2019. Joan, Niamh, Heather, Rebecca, Yeşim and Catherine presented very early drafts of our papers on a panel with a view to exploring the possibility of an edited collection. We are grateful to the conference organisers for that opportunity and to the audience for their enthusiastic and constructive response. And we are particularly grateful for the hospitality of Manuela Maiguashca and her family, who hosted several of us for the duration of the conference, and to Bice Maiguashca for helping to sort that out. The fact we decided to keep going and write a book is in no small part due to what a great time was had in Amsterdam, courtesy of the Maiguashcas.

Beyond that, we would like to express our thanks to our commissioning editor Shannon Kneis for her enthusiasm for the project and her persistence in those early stages when the idea was still in development, and to editorial assistant Anna Richardson for her hard work shepherding the manuscript through review and completion. We acknowledge the extensive feedback from the anonymous reviewers for Bristol University Press – two for the proposal and one who read the initial manuscript in its entirety. We hope we did justice to your comments. We would also like to thank the designer of the wonderful cover for this book, Andrew Corbett, as well as Annie Rose of Newgen for her forensic attention to detail and her patience with the process of preparing the manuscript for publication. Finally, we are enormously grateful to Janine Wiedel for permission to use her striking image of Greenham Common Women’s Peace Camp on the cover. You can see more of Janine’s remarkable photographs of marginalised and resistant communities at:

The book is dedicated to Alison’s daughter, Izzy Bartlett, and Catherine’s mum, Sheila Eschle. Mum, your trips to Greenham continue to reverberate. I am proud that you were part of feminist and peace-making history, and so glad you sometimes took me along. And Izzy, thanks for coming with me to Greenham decades after the camp finished just to see where it happened.

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