Index

Tensions between the US and China have escalated as both powers seek to draw countries into their respective political and economic orbits by financing and constructing infrastructure. Wide-ranging and even-handed, this book offers a fresh interpretation of the territorial logic of US-China rivalry, and explores what it means for countries across Eurasia, Africa, and Latin America. The chapters demonstrate that many countries navigate the global infrastructure boom by articulating novel spatial objectives and implementing political and economic reforms. By focusing on people and places worldwide, this book broadens perspectives on the US-China rivalry beyond bipolarity, and it is an essential guide to 21st century politics.

References to figures appear in italic type. References to endnotes show both the page number and the note number (54n1).

A

Addis Ababa–Djibouti Railway (ADR) 123, 125, 127, 128129, 131, 196, 206
Afghanistan
and China 283286
and international space politics 282286
Mes Aynak copper mine, road construction to 283284
multipolar relations and space technologies 286
Taliban, security concern from 284285
and US 30, 268, 280, 283286
US and China in Central Eurasia, dynamics between 285286
US-led infrastructure development 284285
see also outer space infrastructures
Africa
as a ‘chessboard’ for geopolitical competition 137138, 148
Pan-African approach to development 18
special economic zones, and China 4849
and third world solidarity 299300
see also specific countries
African Development Bank
and Central Corridor in Tanzania 23
and Thika Superhighway 59, 60
African Union 58
Agenda 2063 62
on Central Corridor 18
Ahmed, Abiy 122, 132, 133, 198199
Akaev, Askar 34
Algeria
post-revolutionary history 299300
role in Cold War geopolitics 299301
Aluminum Corporation of China (Chinalco) 146
Andean Development Corporation 110
Aquino III, Benigno 91, 95, 97, 98
Arab Coordination Group 33
Arauz, Andres 115
Argentina 73, 116, 153
and active non-alignment foreign policy 156, 162
and Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank 155
and Bolivia 161
Cambiemos 155
Cauchari–Olaroz project 160
and China 155, 156, 157, 159, 161162
extractive sectors 156157
in global politics of infrastructure 154157
and IMF 155
as an infrastructure state 154, 157, 162
Jujuy 159, 160, 161
lithium extraction in 159161, 162
Peronists 155
shale gas and oil 157159, 162
state spatial strategies 153154, 161
state–society–nature relations 154, 162
and US 154, 156, 157, 158, 159, 161162
Vaca Muerta reserve 157159
Yacimientos Petrolíferos Fiscales (YPF) 157, 158
Arroyo, Gloria Macapagal 91, 98
Asia
and third world solidarity 299300
see also specific countries
Asian Development Bank (ADB) 3, 243
and Kyrgyzstan 29, 30, 3233, 36, 37, 38
and Laos 184
and Philippine 91
Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank
and Argentina 155
and Philippines 93
Asian NATO 220
Assange, Julian 108
Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) 184185
Atambayev, Almazbek 34

B

Badawi, Abdullah 197
Baikonur Cosmodrome 289290
Bakiev, Kurmanbek 34, 37
Bandung Conference 299
Barczewski, B. 61
Bedo, Z. 78
BeiDou 281
Belt and Road Initiative (BRI) 2, 71, 75, 155, 194, 219, 220, 298, 304
and Argentina 155
and Central Corridor 18
and Ethiopia 126, 201
and Indonesia 230
and Kazakhstan 200201, 268, 269
and Kenya 58, 59, 60, 62, 63, 64, 67
and Kyrgyzstan 31, 35, 36
and Laos 181182, 185, 188189, 200
and Malaysia 197
and Middle Corridor Initiative, Turkey 173175
and Nepal 201, 213, 214215, 216, 219220, 223
and outer space infrastructures 280281
and the Philippines 89
and Tanzania 14
and US 158
and Vietnam 202, 242
Bersaglio, B. 138
Biden, Joe 1, 132, 159, 213, 228, 230, 262, 297
Bismarck, Otto Von 138
Blanchette, J. 75
Bolivarian Alliance for the Peoples of Our America (ALBA) 108
Bolivia 108, 116, 161
Bolton, John 137
Borsa İstanbul 175
Bräutigam, T. 47, 48
Brazil 73, 110
Brenner, N. 4
buen vivir ideology, in Ecuador 108110
Build Back Better World (B3W) initiative 2, 187, 194, 298
bureaucrats, interface 1516, 17, 21, 22
Burundi 13, 17
Bush, George W. 145

C

Caicedo, Aparicio 116
Cambodia, internal resilience 204, 205
Canada, uranium mining in 141
capitalism 71, 7476, 78
see also transnational capitalist classes (TCC)
Cat Linh–Ha Dong Elevated Railway 202
Center for Sustainable Urban Development (CSUD) 60
Center Gold 30
Central Asia 27, 28, 30, 3132, 35, 38
Central Asia Investment Partnership between US–Kazakhstan 273
Central Corridor 13, 15, 2324
adjusting visions of infrastructure 2021
and lobbying and politicking 22
and BRI 18
China’s interest in 1819
contentious relationships management 2122
grand visions for 1719
land acquisition and compensation 21
and local labour 22
mediating grand and everyday visions for 1922
Chávez, Hugo 7677
chessboard metaphor, of agency 137138, 148
China
capitalist class and its global expansion 7476
Cultural Revolution 54n1
economic penetration overseas 75
Go Out policy 46, 54n3, 75, 244, 245
Good Neighbour policy 244, 245
hegemony 71
and Japan 230231, 233234, 243244
navigations market 281
role in geopolitics 184185
SEZs 4748, 52
State-owned Assets Supervision and Administration Commission of the State Council (SASAC) 75
state-owned enterprises (SOEs) 125, 126, 128, 146147
transnational capitalist classes see Sino-centric transnational capitalist classes (TCC)
and Uyghurs 39n4
Yuan diplomacy of 244
see also specific countries
China Civil Engineering Construction Corporation 206
China Communications Construction Company 78
China Development Bank 76, 77
and Ecuador 111
and Hungary 259
and Indonesia 233
and Kazakhstan 271
and Tanzania 18
China Forestry Group New Zealand Company 80
China General Nuclear Power Corporation (CGN) 147, 148
China National Nuclear Corp (CNNC) 146, 147
China Nonferrous Metal Mining Company (CNMC) 46
China Nuclear International Uranium Corporation (SinoU) 146
China Railway Engineering Corporation (CREC) 127, 129, 206
China Railway International 78
China Road and Bridge Corporation (CRBC) 3233, 61
China-CEEC 258
Chinese Communist Party (CCP) 1, 74, 96, 147, 184
Chinese funding and EU counterparts funding, difference between 261
Chotaeva, Cholpon 35
Cold War 137, 140142, 213, 215, 217, 219, 221, 223
geopolitics 299302
neutrality 302
Comac C919 project 1
Communist Party of the Philippines (CPP) 9596
Communist Party of Vietnam (CPV) 202
comprehensive strategic partnership
between Argentina and China 155
between Vietnam and China 246
between Vietnam and Japan 247, 249
Congo, Democratic Republic of 13, 17
Correa, Rafael 106113, 115
County of Nairobi 62
COVID-19 pandemic
impact on continental trade networks 18
Third Worldism’s response to 305
vaccines as geopolitical tool 222
Cuba 108

D

Dang, N. 198
de Klerk, F.W. 141
developmental state model 47, 49, 54n1, 123, 132
Doi Moi reform 241, 242, 244, 250
Duterte, Rodrigo 89, 90, 97, 98

E

East Africa
Central Corridor see Central Corridor
infrastructure scramble in 1314, 15
local bureaucrats 14
national spatial planning projects 14
East Coast Rail Link (ECRL) 204
Eastern Industrial Zone (EIZ) (Ethiopia) 130
East–West highway 217
economic integration, impact of 302
Ecuador 106108, 113
buen vivir ideology in 108110
and China 110, 115, 116
dams and developmentalism in 110112
and IMF 107, 114, 115
Moreno and neoliberal restoration and 114116
and multilateral development banks 113
National Secretariat of Planning and Development (SENPLADES) 109, 110
opting out of Wall Street Consensus 112114
public-private partnerships (PPPs) in 112
Yachay City of Knowledge project 111112
Ecuador Libre 115116
elite legitimation 199203, 206
Enns, C. 138
Erdoğan, Tayyip 167, 168, 173
Ethiopia 122124
Addis Ababa Light Rail Transit (LRT) 125, 127, 128129
Addis Ababa-Djibouti Railway (ADR) 123, 125, 127, 128, 131, 196, 206
and BRI 201
centralization and ties with China 125127
and China 122, 123128, 130, 132133, 134
Digital Silk Road 196
Eastern Industrial Zone (EIZ) 130
Ethiopian Railway Corporation in 127129
government-owned industrial park locations in 131
Grand Ethiopian Renaissance Dam 124
Hawassa Industrial Park 130
hedging approaches in 198199
Industrial Parks Development Corporation 129131
infrastructure state in crisis in 131133
internal resilience 205
La Gare project 124
Prosperity Party (PP) 201
reception of Chinese-funded project 201
and US 122, 123, 124, 132, 133, 134
Ethiopia People’s Revolutionary Democratic Front (EPRDF) 123, 198
Ethiopian Railway Corporation (ERC) 205206
EU–Asia Connectivity Strategy 194
Eurasian Land Bridge 267, 268, 271, 274
European Development Bank 32
European Investment Bank 173
European Union (EU)
‘A Globally Connected Europe’ 194
and China 254
global financial crisis, impact of 255256
and US, relationship against Russia 255
Export–Import Bank of China (China EXIM Bank)
and Argentina 159
and Ethiopia 126
and Kenya 65
and Kyrgyzstan 30, 33
and Middle Corridor initiative 173174
and Serbia 78
and Tanzania 18, 19
and Thika Superhighway 60

F

Fernández, Alberto 159, 160161
Funder, M. 21

G

G7 2, 187, 194
Gallagher, J. 73
Gallegos, Franklin Ramirez 115
Ganfeng Lithium 160
German colonialism, and Namibia 138139
Gindin, S. 72
Glas, Jorge 114115
global neoliberalism 74
Global South 302
Graeber, D. 38
Grand Ethiopian Renaissance Dam 124
Great Game 28
Great Power 280
Guaidó, Juan 77, 114
Guoxuan Hi-Tech 160161

H

Halkbank 175
Harris, J. 72
Harvey, P. 149
Hawassa Industrial Park (Ethiopia) 130, 196
Hecht, G. 138, 141142
hedging
low-and middle-income countries’ hedge 298
small-state 197199, 242245
Southeast Asia’s strategic hedging 243
hegemony 71
HeSteel 78
Himalayan region
China and India, infrastructural competition between 214
and geopolitics 214216
Nepal’s role as an autonomous and agentic player in 219220
see also Nepal
host-country agency 194195
definition of 195197
and elite legitimation 199203, 206
external alternatives 203204
internal resilience 203204
patterns in infrastructure cooperation 195196
small-state agency 206207
host-country receptivity
coolly receptive 202203
highly receptive 200201
moderately and selectively receptive 201202
Huawei 7879
Hungary 254
and Belgium 255256
Budapest–Belgrade Railway section 196
Budapest’s logistical connection, enhancement of 259
and China 201, 255, 260, 261262, 263
development through ‘the east’ affinity 258
and EU 261
impact of Greek economy crisis on 256
‘New Silk Road’ project 258259
reception of Chinese-funded project 201
and Russia 257
spatial integration with Visegrád Group (V4) countries 257, 262
spatial objectives of 260261
and US 263
Husab mine 147148

I

India 3, 38, 46, 201
and Himalayan region 213215
‘Make in India’ initiative 4
nano-satellites launching by 290
and Nepal 198, 214, 216, 218220, 221, 223
Indonesia
and China 197, 198, 228, 229230
domestic politics 228
and FONOPs 228
free and active foreign policy 229230
hedging approaches 197198
hedging strategy 227, 228
high-speed rail (HSR) project 227, 230234, 236
Jakarta-Bandung High-Speed Rail 196, 197, 198
Jakarta–Bandung HSR deal 230234, 236
and Japan 228, 229, 230, 234, 235
maritime security 227228, 234236
non-aligned movement 229
plea to third world solidarity 299300
reception of Chinese-funded project 202
role in Cold War geopolitics 299300
socialism and communism, status of 229
and Soviet-American influences 229
spatial projects in 227228
Suharto’s presidency, impact of 228230
and US Freedom of Navigation Operations 228, 234236
Industrial Parks Development Corporation (IPDC) 127, 129131, 205206
institutional reforms 5
Inter-American Development Bank 110
interface bureaucrats 1516, 17, 21, 22
International Consortium for Infrastructure in Africa (ICAF) 59
International Development Finance Corporation (IDFC) 115, 116, 122
International Monetary Fund (IMF)
and Argentina 155
and Ecuador 107, 114, 115
shock therapy 27
IPAC 39n4
Islamic Development Bank, and Kyrgyzstan 32, 33
Itigi 15, 19, 2021, 22

J

Japan 47, 91
and China 230231, 233234, 243244
and Indonesia 228, 230
‘Lost Decade’ of 243
Partnership for Quality Infrastructure (PQI) 194
Partnership of Quality Infrastructure (PQI) of 242, 244
post-war industrialization 54n4
self-help principle 49, 55n7
and Zambia 4950
Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA) 32, 43, 47, 49, 50, 52, 53, 243
Japarov, Sadyr 31, 37
Jeenbekov, Sooronbay 31
Jegathesan, Dato’ J. 50
Jiuping, Li 59
Jujuy 159, 160, 161
Justice and Development Party (the AKP) 167, 168, 169, 170171, 172, 173, 175, 176, 177n11

K

Kazakhstan 267
and BRI 200201, 268, 269
and China 268, 269, 270, 272, 273
as (geo)strategic pivot 268270
Global Infrastructural Integration in 270
hedging and state restructuring 270275
hedging approaches in 198
Kazakhstan 2050 267, 268
Khorgos dry port 196
light rail project, reasons for failure of 272
multi-vector strategy 274275
Nurly Zhol 267, 268, 270, 271, 272, 275
as a ‘pivot’ in US–China competition 269270, 274
powerful neighbours, balancing relations with 271, 275
reception of Chinese-funded project 200201
security initiatives 269
Sino-Kazakh railway 271
spatial objectives 268
and US 268269, 273
Kenya 58
‘Black Mondays’ 64
and China 58, 59, 60, 61, 6465, 6667
JKIA–Westlands expressway 59, 62
Kisumu–Kakamega highway 62
megaprojects 59, 61, 64, 66, 67
Mombasa Port 6364
Standard Gauge Railway 59, 61, 62, 6366
and Tanzania 14
Thika Superhighway 5963
and US 58, 59, 6667
Vision 2030 4, 58, 61, 62
Kenya Alliance of Residents Associations (KARA) 60
Kenya National Highways Authority (KeNHA) 62
Kenyatta, Uhuru 61, 62, 66
Khorgos Cooperation Center 271
Kibaki, Mwai 59
Kirchner, Cristina 154, 155
Kirchner, Néstor 154
Klopp, J. 61
Knox, H. 149
Koornhof, Piet 141
Kosovo 79
Kristof, Nicholas 144
Kunshan Industrial Park Company 130
Kuwait Fund for Arab Economic Development 19
Kyrgyz–Chinese Ata-Bashi Free Economic Zone Joint Venture 35
Kyrgyzstan 27, 3637
Alternative North–South Route 33, 34
Bishkek–Osh Road 34
and BRI 31, 35, 36
Canadian mine company running Kumtor 35
and China 3031, 32, 3536
Chinese gold mine (Zhong Ji) 35
debts 3738
and democracy 27
geopolitical in-between positioning 28
infrastructure, history of 2931
institutional reforms 2930
multi-vector foreign policy strategy 28
polyester roads 3233
roadside gravel 3335
and Russia 3132, 38
under Soviet rule 29
and US 30, 32, 38
and Uzbekistan 32
and World Trade Organization (WTO) 30

L

Lake Victoria bridge project 19
Laos 203
and BRI 181182, 185, 188189
and China 181, 183184, 186188, 189, 205
contemporary geopolitics and infrastructural legacies 183
Électricité du Laos (EdL) 189
geopolitical relations with its neighbours 181, 182183
and global economy 184, 190
infrastructure-led development and regional integration 181, 185187
institutional reforms 181
internal resilience 204, 205
Lao People’s Revolutionary Party (LPRP) 200
Laos–China Railway 196, 200
Mekong–US partnership 189
Ministry of Planning and Investment (MPI) 187188
railway projects, Lao–Chinese joint venture 188
reception of Chinese-funded project 200
and Russia 182, 183184, 189, 190
and Sino-Viet 183184
spatial projects, regional/multilateral actors’ role in 180
state restructuring in 187190
and US 186187, 189
and Vietnam 183184
Laos–China Railway 196, 200
Lasso, Guillermo 115116
Latin America 77, 156, 158, 303
active non-alignment foreign policy 156, 162
and COVID-19 crisis 116
Lee, Ching Kwan 46, 71
Liao, J.C. 198
Lin, Justin Yifu 3
Lithium Americas Corporation 160
Lithium Triangle 160
Lithuania 262
Louw, Peter 140
Lusaka East MFEZ 44, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51, 52, 53
Lusaka South MFEZ 43, 44, 47, 49
planning and designing 5052
as threat to success of Chinese efforts 4849

M

Macri, Mauricio 155
Maduro, Nicolás 77
Magufuli, John 14, 19
Malaysia
and China 197
East Coast Rail Link (ECRL) 197
internal resilience 204
Manyoni 15, 19, 20, 22
Mao Zedong 54n1
Marcos, Ferdinand 96, 98
Massa, Sergio 155
Mbataru, P. 6061
Mes Aynak copper mine 283
Milk NZ Holdings 80
Millennium Challenge Corporation (MCC) 214, 215, 220221
Ming, Zhang 64
Mohamad, Mahathir 197, 204
Morales, Evo 161
Morales, Gerardo 159
Moreno, Lenín 114116
Mtwara Corridor 22
multi-facility economic zones (MFEZ), Zambia see Lusaka East MFEZ ; Lusaka South MFEZ ; Zambia
multilateral institutions, and regional initiatives 298
Mweemba, C.E. 21

N

Namibia 148149
and Anti-Apartheid Movement 143
and China 146147
climate change mitigation 146147
and German colonization 138
Husab mine 147148
liberation struggle 142143
Nama and Herero leaders 139
neoliberalism 144145
nuclear market, decline of 146
radioactive strategy 138, 147148
Rössing Mountain, uranium exploration and mining at 139, 140147
and South Africa 140
South West Africa People’s Organization (SWAPO) 138, 142145, 146, 147, 148
and South West African People’s Organization (SWAPO) 142145
state capitalism 147148
state ownership 147148
state structuring 143145
uranium exploration 140, 144
uranium mining in 138139, 144
and US’s War on Terror 145146
see also South Africa
National Institute for Economic Research (NIER) 188
navigations market 281
see also outer space infrastructures
neoliberal reform 5
Nepal
and BRI 201, 213, 214215, 216, 219220, 223
China and India, balance of alliances between 216
civil war, impact of 218
economic and political changes in 218
economic positioning, changes in 218
geopolitical infrastructure and state agency in 216218
hedging approaches in 198
and India 198, 214, 216, 218220, 221, 223
Indian economic blockade of 215, 216, 218
Indo-Pacific Alliance 214215, 223
Indo-Pacific Strategy 221
and infrastructure development competition 213216
Kerung-Kathmandu Trans-Himalayan Railway 196
neoliberal reform 217219
post-earthquake reconstruction, impact of 215
reception of Chinese-funded project 200201
regional hegemonic powers 213, 215, 216, 219, 222S223
road building, privatization of 217218
role as an autonomous and agentic player in Himalayan region 219220
spatial and economic agenda 221
see also Himalayan region
network centrality 298
Neuquén Province 157, 162
new Cold War 1, 137138, 153, 155, 162, 180, 221, 280
New People’s Army (NPA) 96
‘New Silk Road’ project 258259
New Zealand 7981
and China 7980
Overseas Investment (Urgent Measures) Amendment Bill 80
Pengxin New Zealand Farm Group 80
nuclear energy 138
see also Namibia
Nur Otan 200201
Nurly Zhol 267, 268, 270, 271, 272, 275
Nur-Sultan 198
Nur-Sultan light rail project/Astana LRT 272
Nyahua-Chaya Road 15, 20, 21, 22
Nyerere, Julius 19, 142

O

Oakes, T. 5
Obama, Barack 38, 155
official development assistance (ODA) 92
Chinese 93, 100n3
Japanese 93, 95, 100n3, 243244, 245247, 249
1MDB 204
Orbán, Viktor 201
Orhangazi, Ö 177n11
outer space infrastructures
analysis of 280281
case studies and space politics 283291
and concrete and steel infrastructure projects 281
in Eurasia 280
Kazakhstan’s space activities 289291
Pakistan’s satellite development 287288
public and private actors involvement in 281
repositioning 282286
Turkmenistan–Monaco satellite launch 288289
overseas development assistance (ODA), Japanese 229

P

Pais, Alianza 108, 110
Panitch, L. 72
Panjaitan, Luhut 197
People’s Liberation Army 98
Pérez, Carlos Andrés 76, 115
performance legitimation 201
Permanent Court of Arbitration (PCA) 95
Petric, Boris 28
Petróleos de Venezuela, S.A. (PDVSA) 76, 77
Philippines
Armed Forces of the Philippines (AFP) 89, 95, 9697
Build, Build, Build (BBB) programme 9295
and China 8990, 9295, 9799
decentralisation of urban governance 91
Department of National Defence (DND) 96, 98
Infrastructure Preparation and Innovation Facility 93
military elites and (geo)politics of infrastructural agendas 90, 9597
National Economic and Development Authority (NEDA) (Philippines) 93, 94
New People’s Army (NPA) 96
official development assistance (ODA) 92, 93
Philippine Coast Guard 9799
Philippine Constabulary 96
political economic foundations of 9092
public-private partnerships (PPPs) 90, 9192
and US 8990, 91, 95, 97100
Visiting Forces Agreement 97
Philippine-South Korea Project Preparation Facility 93
Plummer, A. 61
Pompeo, Mike 132
postcolonial states, integration of 301302
Power China 159
predatory lending 2
private sector investors, and regional initiatives 298
Programme for Infrastructure Development in Africa 18, 23, 58
Prosper Africa 137
Prosperity Party (PP) 198199
public-private partnerships (PPPs) (Philippines) 90, 9192

Q

Qiyuan Group 130

R

Rabelais, François 38
Ramos, Fidel 98
Razak, Najib 197, 204
Repsol 157
Rio Tinto 141, 145146
Robinson, R. 73
Rössing Mountain, uranium exploration and mining at 139, 140147
Russia 78
EU–US relationship against 255
and Hungary 257
and Kyrgyzstan 3132, 38
and Laos 182, 183184, 189, 190
Rwanda 13
RZD International 78

S

Sahlin, M. 37
Schneider, F. 196
Sehring, Jennifer 39n5
Selassie, Haile 125
Serbia 7779, 81
Budapest–Belgrade railway 78
and China 7879
‘Clean Network’ initiative 79
economy of 7778
Innovations and Development Centre 79
and US 79
wild capitalism 78
Zelezara Smederevo steel plant 78
SERI Group 160
Shanghai Electric Power Construction 159
Shanghai Power Utility 146
Sidaway, J.D. 18
Silk Road Fund 18
Sino-centric transnational capitalist classes (TCC) 75
economic axis 7576
(geo)politic axis 76
ideologic axis 76
in New Zealand 7981
in Serbia 7779, 81
in Venezuela 7677, 81
Sinosure 176
Sino-Viet, and Laos 183184
small-state hedging 242245
definition of 197199
and external alternative partnerships 203204
Smuts, Jan 140
Snowden, Edward 108
South Africa
apartheid nuclear ambition 140142
end of mandate over Namibia 141
occupation, infrastructures of 139140
see also Namibia
South China Sea (SCS) 90
and Vietnam 241, 242, 245
South West Africa Company 138, 139
South West Africa People’s Organization (SWAPO) 138, 142145, 146, 147, 148
Southeast Asia 180
strategic hedging 243
and US 186
space politics 283291
special economic zones (SEZs) 4749, 52
state restructuring 35
Structural Adjustment Programs 4344, 54n2
Sublime Porte 169, 176n5
Suharto 228230

T

Tang, X. 47, 48
Tanzania 1314
and BRI 14, 18, 23
Central Corridor see Central Corridor
and China 14, 1819, 23
decentralized governance system 16
district offices in 17
district-level bureaucrats 15
interface bureaucrats 1516, 17, 21, 22
and Kenya 14
local bureaucrats 14, 20
Mtwara Corridor 22
Nurturing Industrialisation for Economic Transformation and Human Development (FYDP II) 17
spaces outside district offices governance, interface bureaucrats 17
Tanzania Development Vision 2025 17
ujamaa 16
and US 14, 19
Telekom Srbija 79
territorial integration, management of 2
third world solidarity 299303
African and Asian countries, responsibility of 299300
Bandung Conference 299
Cold War geopolitics and 300302
economic integration 303
spatial inequality 302
Third Worldism 303
African-Asian countries, new economic order of 303
COVID-19 pandemic, response to 305
Sino-US relations, during global financial crisis 304305
US, primary superpower of unipolar era 303
US–China future economic relations 305
and US–China rivalry 305306
USSR, dissolution of 303
Washington Consensus, criticism on 303304
Tigrayan People’s Liberation Front 131
Toktogulov, Kadyr 27, 28, 31, 38
transnational capitalist classes (TCC)
China see Sino-centric transnational capitalist classes (TCC)
US 7273, 75
Transport Corridor Europe-Caucasus-Asia (TRACECA) 168, 169, 170
Triangle of Hope programme 43, 50
Trotha, Lothar von 139
Trump, Donald 38, 155
Turkey
and Belgium 173
and China 173175, 176
EU membership 167168
and financial crisis 2008 170
institutional reforms 172173
Justice and Development Party (the AKP) 167, 168, 169, 170171, 172, 173, 175, 176, 177n11
Kars-Tbilisi-Baku railway project 170
Marmara Region 172
Middle Corridor initiative 168169, 170, 171176
and political Islam 167
Secular-Kemalist establishment 172
state restructuring 172176
state spatial objectives 169172
Sublime Porte 169
Transport Corridor Europe-Caucasus-Asia (TRACECA) 168, 169, 170
Türkiye Wealth Fund (TWF) 175176
Türkiye Hayat Emeklilik 175
Türkiye Wealth Fund (TWF) 175176

U

Uganda 13, 17
Union of South American Nations (Unasur) 108
United Arab Emirates (UAE) 124
United Front 82n1
United Nations
new international economic order 302
South West Africa People’s Organization (SWAPO) designation 142143
United States 302
anti-corruption measures, Kazakhstan’s support in 273
bourgeoisies 73
BUILD Act (2018) 194
Freedom of Navigation Operations (FONOPs), in Indonesia 228, 234236
hegemony 73, 74
Keynesian system of international accumulation 73
surveillance of Namibia 145146
transnational capitalist classes 7273, 75
see also specific countries
US–Kazakhstan Business Council 273
Uyui 15, 19, 20, 22

V

Vaca Muerta reserve 157159
VakıfBank 175
van der Lugt, S. 196
Venezuela 81, 108, 110
and China 77
Petróleos de Venezuela, S.A. (PDVSA) 76, 77
Pink Tide 76, 77
and US 76
Vietnam
anti-Chinese sentiment in 247248
balancing Japan and China rivalry 242
and BRI 196
and China 196, 242, 243, 246, 250251
Doi Moi reform 241, 242, 244, 250
economic and security levels, managing 243
economic cooperation 242
economic modernization 244245
economic pragmatism 250
great power statecraft and small-state hedging 242245
hedging policy 198, 245250
infrastructure development policy 241242
and Japan 242, 244245, 246249
land border and Comprehensive Strategic Partnership 246
multi-directional foreign policy 244
reception of Chinese-funded project 202
and South China Sea (SCS) disputes 241, 242, 245
spatial objectives 242243
transportation and energy infrastructure development 245
and US 242243
Vietnam–China Joint Statement of Comprehensive Cooperation 245246
Visegrád Group (V4) countries 257, 262
Visiting Forces Agreement (Philippines) 97
Vorster, B.J. 142
Vostochny Cosmodrome 291
Vučić, Aleksandar 78

W

Wall Street Consensus (WSC) 107, 112114
Wang Yi 19
Washington Consensus 3, 27
Were, E. 18
Widodo, Joko (Jokowi) 202, 227
World Bank
and Central Corridor 19
and Philippines 91
World Campaign Against Military and Nuclear Collaboration with South Africa 142

X

Xi Jinping 1, 159

Y

Yachay City of Knowledge project 111112
Yacimientos Petrolíferos Fiscales (YPF) 157, 158
Yeldan, A.E. 177n11
Yeremia, A.E. 202

Z

Zambia 19, 42, 5354, 71
Chambishi Copper Mines 46
and China 4247, 50, 52, 5354
and China Nonferrous Metal Mining Company (CNMC) 46, 47
and Chinese SEZs 52
economic planning 4447
and Japan 4950
and Japanese International Cooperation Agency (JICA) 43, 47, 49, 50, 52, 53
Kulim Hi-Tech Park 51
Lusaka East MFEZ 47, 48, 50, 51, 52, 53
Lusaka South MFEZ 43, 47, 4852, 51
mining sector 4546
Mopani Copper Mine 43
multi-facility economic zones (MFEZs) 4344, 4753, 51
privatization in 46
special economic zones as economic statecraft 4749, 52
Structural Adjustment Programs 46
Tazara Railway 45, 46
Triangle of Hope programme 43, 50
Zambian Development Agency Act 47, 50
Zambia–China Economic and Trade Cooperation Zone (ZCCZ) 43, 47, 48, 5052, 53
Ziraat Bankası 175
ZTE 159

Content Metrics

May 2022 onwards Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 0 0 0
Full Text Views 23 13 0
PDF Downloads 76 6 0

Altmetrics