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- Author or Editor: Martin Hyde x
- Ageing, Health and Care x
India’s ageing population is growing rapidly; over 60s constitute 7% of the total population and this is projected to triple in the next four decades.
Drawing on a wide range of studies, this book examines living arrangements across India and their impact on the care and wellbeing of older people. Addressing access to welfare initiatives and changing cultural norms including co-residence, family care and migration, it reveals the diversity of living arrangements, cultural customs and the welfare issues facing older adults in India.
This book offers a crucial examination for practitioners, researchers and policymakers seeking to understand and develop the infrastructure required to meet the needs of older people in India.
Living arrangements and the provision of care for older people in India have been affected by migration. This is particularly salient given that Indian diaspora is the largest in the world. Hence, one can expect the trends in transnational migration to have a particular impact in the Indian context. However, and perhaps more importantly, the chapter will explore the patterns of internal migration within India. This is an important corrective to the focus on transnational migration as levels of internal migration far outweigh the extent of international migration. Therefore, this chapter examines both internal and international migration to understand how families establish, maintain and retain transnational and transregional care relations. In so doing, we draw on 1) theories of migration, 2) global chains of care and 3) life course theories to frame how migration decisions are related to life-course transitions and care provision. The life-course approach focuses on life events and transitions of individuals and the ways in which these events define their life trajectories. In particular, we will draw on the concept of ‘linked-lives’ to show how older people’s life-course transitions, for example going into care, are linked to the migration decisions of their offspring. With increasing urbanisation and migration we will see emerging trends of global and transregional chains of care to supplant and complement care deficits for vulnerable populations left behind, especially older adults.
This chapter explores the salience of social class and age for the formation of identities in later life. It draws on both cross-national and time-series data to provide both a global and historical view. The results show that neither class nor age is a dominant source of identity for older people. This lends support to the argument that there has been a dis-identification both of class and age amongst this age group. Moreover, age and class identities appear to operate independently of each other suggesting, from a relational sociology perspective, that other forms of identity and identification need to be examined. Ultimately these conclusions point to the need for continued research to understand how identities are formed in later life.
Targeted as the ‘grey consumer’, people retiring now participated in the creation of the post-war consumer culture. These consumers have grown older but have not stopped consuming.
Based on extensive analysis over two years, this unique book examines the engagement of older people with consumer society in Britain since the 1960s. It charts the changes in the experience of later life in the UK over the last 50 years, the rise of the ‘individualised consumer citizen’ and what this means for health and social policies.
The book will appeal to students, lecturers, researchers and policy analysts. It will provide material for teaching on undergraduate courses and postgraduate courses in sociology, social policy and social gerontology. It will also have considerable appeal to private industry engaged with older consumers as well as to voluntary and non-governmental organisations addressing ageing in Britain.
The final chapter draws together the main issues and findings from the wealth of information presented in the previous chapters and reflect on what this means for researchers, social care providers and policy makers in India and elsewhere. Although each chapter makes a unique contribution to our understanding of the impact of the changing living arrangements on the care for older people in India, there are a number of common themes that connect them. The narrative that emerges across these chapters is one that challenges the assumed wisdom about the demographic, industrial and social change on older adults. The chapters in this book tell us a much more complex story about living arrangements and care for older adults in India. Rather than being a single, linear narrative it is a story about the heterogeneity of families, care and migration experiences.
India has one of the most rapidly ageing populations on the planet. There is concern that this rate of population ageing, coupled with the decline of extended families, decreasing fertility rates, increasing life expectancy, widowhood, singlehood or strained intergenerational relationships, will have a negative impact on the availability of (family-based) care for older adults in India, resulting in poorer health and well-being. However, India is a complex and diverse country made up of different states, castes, cultures, and ethnic groups. Moreover, rates of population ageing are not uniform as Indian states are at diverse levels of demographic transition and vary to a great extent in their cultural practices, social norms and socio-political contexts. Indeed, while India’s older adult population has now risen to 8.57 per cent, in states such as Goa and Kerala the percentage of older adults is as high as 11.20 per cent and 12.55 per cent respectively. This introduction provides an overview of these issues by situating the subsequent chapters within the broad demographic trends already mentioned and gives an outline of the structure and chapters of the book. This chapter introduces the need for focus on living arrangements and care and highlight the social, economic and cultural contexts that shape the provision of care for older adults in India.
This chapter discusses the consumption of health in later life. Changes in government policy suggest that people at all ages will be expected to take on more responsibility in maintaining and protecting their own health. The chapter also stresses that the emphasis on maintaining the self is a key feature of later life in the 21st century, and that this will have an impact on different sections of the healthcare industry.
This chapter is concerned with the consequence of changes to later life health and social policy. It states that health and social policies have gone through considerable transformation since the early 1980s, which is especially true with respect to later life. The chapter then charts the major changes and challenges to policy from the post-war era up to the present. The chapter also considers the implications of the rise of the citizen consumer with regard to health and social care provision.
This chapter takes a look at the evolution of the ‘third age’ in British society, and traces its growth as a concept and as a social and cultural space. It uses various demographic and historical data, and presents various typologies and periodisations of the ‘third age’. The discussion also studies the ways in which it is expressed and reproduced in different social contexts. Several terms such as ‘generation X’, ‘baby boomers’, and ‘sixties hippies’ are introduced.
This concluding chapter presents an argument that the role of the UK’s ageing population in consumer society has been relatively neglected. It emphasises that the trend to earlier retirement, as well as the relative affluence of many retired people, is an important aspect of ageing in late modern societies. The cohorts of people who are now retiring are those who participated in the creation of the post-war consumer culture. Although these consumers have grown older, they have not stopped consuming. The discussion shows that their choices and behaviour are products of the collective histories of both cohort and generation.