The 2017 persecution of the Rohingyas resulted in around a million Rohingyas fleeing to Bangladesh, India and Malaysia.
This book investigates the complex challenges of managing the large-scale refugee exodus in Bangladesh and how best to resolve these challenges in the future. Using a mixed method approach that includes a survey, key informant interviews and numerous short case studies of persecution, the authors also examine the problematic influence of the media, as local depictions of Rohingya refugees often caused further tension and divides in the midst of the refugee crisis. The book’s analysis offers a deeper understanding of the causes and drivers of identity-based politics among Myanmar’s Rohingya.
The plight of Rohingya Muslims in Bangladeshi camps has garnered little attention in the local press. Instead, the media has focused on reports of atrocities committed by the Rohingyas in Rahkine. The stories are written in such a way that the international community is unable to empathize with these people in life-threatening situations. Narratives impact how the world perceives the Rohingyas. While the media can highlight Rohingya refugees’ voices and depict various aspects of the crisis, the problem remains unresolved. Despite the fact that the crisis has captured the attention of people globally, the media’s representation of the Rohingya refugee crisis is rather disputed. Local media has described the Rohingyas as criminals, burdens, and security risks in the majority of cases. The Myanmar media, on the other hand, framed the Rohingya refugees’ narratives in such a way that world leaders and the international community feel little sympathy for them. As a result, the Rohingya refugee problem continues to grow by the day, and the ongoing Rohingya crisis in Bangladesh is producing a host of economic, social, and political issues.
The first chapter, therefore, describes the central premise of the book, the research methodology and analytical framework of the study, and the contribution of this work to the wider body of knowledge. This chapter discusses the causes and drivers of identity-based politics in the Rohingya population as well as the complex challenges of managing the large-scale Rohingya exodus in Bangladesh and how to best resolve these in the long run.
Set against widespread refugee problems, and those of the Rohingyas in particular, this chapter proposes a thorough theory of refugees that places a premium on endogenous elements, including political and religious motivations. It also demonstrates how the media’s framing of the issue affects the perception of it. This chapter emphasizes the importance of understanding media framing in trying to comprehend the larger implications of mass communication, since it offers an alternative to the ‘objectivity and bias paradigm’. This chapter also delves into the history of human rights and the current predicament of the Rohingya people, as well as a number of important historical events that have affected the evolution of the Rohingya situation.
The history of Rohingya refugees is examined in this section. Muslim Rohingyas have been persecuted and subjected to regular brutal treatment in predominantly Buddhist Myanmar for decades. Their lack of citizenship stems from a 1948 law that the Burmese government has refused to amend. Since most Rohingyas are not legal residents, they have trouble getting jobs and accessing education and healthcare, and it’s tough for them to travel around the country. This chapter explores race, politics, religion, and international relations as they relate to the book’s major themes. The chapter describes the Rohingyas’ escape to safety and offers an explanation for the international community’s relative indifference to the problem up until this point.
This chapter analyzes the various framing techniques employed by Bangladeshi, Myanmarese (Burmese), and global media to characterize the Rohingya refugee crisis. This chapter delves deeper into the reasons for and effects of the media’s political economics and ideology on the framing of the Rohingya refugee crisis. Many factors, including those in society, government, the economy, culture, race, religion, and international relations, all have a role in how the Rohingya refugee crisis is covered in the news. This chapter examines the ways in which the political ideology of media outlets and their roots affect media content through the use of manipulation, distortion, and bias. It is clear from a variety of evidence that the Rohingyas were specifically targeted for genocide because of their ethnicity and religion.
This chapter provides a summary of the findings and overall conclusions presented in the preceding chapters, bringing together the most important ideas from the book. Based on the findings, this chapter makes some recommendations for how the world should deal with the Rohingyas upon their return and resettlement. The chapter emphasizes the importance of the media in such situations. The chapter also compiles a few major recommendations and evaluates the Myanmar government’s narratives in relation to those of regional and international credible media outlets to determine their veracity. In this final chapter, the contribution to the scholarship is precisely highlighted.
COVID- 19 has been labeled a ‘pandemic’, which turned out to be one of the most terrifying diseases causing an impending crisis the world has not witnessed in the recent era (Chattoraj, 2021). Before the development of successful vaccines, the World Health Organization’s (WHO) recommendations such as quarantining, wearing masks, self- isolating, maintaining social distance, and lockdown were the only measures available to combat COVID- 19 (Ullah et al, 2021). However, these are not always feasible for all communities (see Lemanski and de Groot, Chapter Ten); for the refugees living in small and overcrowded tiny shacks that are found in refugee camps, a major challenge lies in maintaining social distance and lockdown measures. Rohingya refugees in Bangladesh, who were forced out of the Northern Rakhine State of Myanmar in the face of brutal persecution, rapes, and killings are no exception (Ullah and Chattoraj, 2018).
There are an estimated 1.2 million Rohingya refugees staying in 34 camps (Bhuyian, 2021) outside Cox’s Bazar, a district of southeast Bangladesh (Ullah and Chattoraj, 2021). They face a heightened risk of COVID- 19 owing to poor, cramped conditions and densely populated camps. They lack access to adequate health care, shelter, water, and sanitation, which pose major challenges in their efforts to protect themselves from the virus. Therefore, the main objective of this chapter is to provide details about these challenges, and the experiences of the Rohingyas in these refugee camps due to the sudden emergence of the pandemic.