Some 759 million people lack access to electricity, and 2.6 billion are without clean cooking solutions. Yet universal access to modern energy services must be achieved without additional emissions. Therefore, climate targets need to be achieved on the basis of clean energy sources. This chapter first discusses how policy making in developing countries has shifted in the past decade, from viewing energy as a sector to regarding it as an enabler for broader socio-economic goals. The chapter also discusses the pertinent linkages of SDG 7 (Affordable and clean energy) with other SDGs, and highlights key actors and institutions in that policy domain. Second, the chapter offers best practice in clean energy access policies. The case of Kenya is used to illustrate policy success. Third, the chapter puts a focus on clean cooking, and the specific challenges presented by this aspect of SDG 7. Zooming in on sub-Saharan Africa, the chapter shows how countries struggle to implement adequate policies despite the multifaceted co-benefits in terms of health, gender or environmental protection. Finally, the chapter presents key policy action points from the perspective of the carbon neutrality target and the 1.5 °C scenario, and in light of the latest IPCC Sixth Assessment Report.