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  • Author or Editor: Cassie Pedersen x
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LGBTIQA+ is a continually evolving acronym that refers to lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, intersex, queer and/or questioning and asexual and/or ally. The plus sign represents diverse sex, gender and sexual identities that lie outside of LGBTIQA. It can be difficult for people who identify as LGBTIQA+ to feel accepted in rural communities owing to the dominance of conservative values, including the maintenance of traditional family structures and gender roles. This can lead LGBTIQA+ people to experience heightened levels of social isolation, exclusion, discrimination and marginalization in rural settings. Whilst a growing body of literature considers the unique issues and challenges of LGBTIQA+ people in rural settings, further research into how rurality and LGBTIQA+ status bear on offending, victimization and criminal justice responses is needed. An intersectional approach is also required in considering how age, race, ethnicity, class, disability and so on shape the criminal justice experiences of LGBTIQA+ individuals in rural areas.

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The key reference guide to rural crime and rural justice, this encyclopedia includes 85 concise and informative entries covering rural crime theories, offences and control. It is divided into five complementary sections:

  • theories of rural crime;

  • rural crime studies;

  • rural criminal justice studies and responses;

  • rural people and groups;

  • rural criminological research.

With contributions from established and emerging international scholars, this authoritative guide offers state-of-the-art synopses of the key issues in rural crime, criminology, offending and victimisation, and both institutional and informal responses to rural crime.

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‘Rural’, most crudely, is defined as ‘non-urban’, but this dichotomous delineation is grossly inadequate because it neglects the consideration of the nuances of geography, demography, attitudes, culture and issues of access both tangible and amorphous. These are vitally important considerations: there exists significant cultural and spatial separation between urban and rural because what is taken for granted in the city is not accessible or available outside of it. There exists, most certainly, definitional difficulties about rural that will never go away. Should we just consider physical and demographic measures, such as population size and density, accessibility and remoteness? Such imprecision is typified by the existing definitions even within the same jurisdictions by different organizations and agencies of the same governmental units. Adopting a ‘one size fits all’ approach is unwise, though, as a universal measure will not account for the non-homogenous nature of geographic location, both within and across jurisdictions. For instance, a coastal location in Australia dominated with former city dwellers cannot be easily compared to a rapidly populated boom town in Canada reliant on imported labour, to a primarily agricultural community in Ireland with multiple generations of the same families present, to the Yanomamo and Kayapo and other tribes in the rain forest regions of South America, nor to a remote settlement in the Siberian region of Russia or in the state of Alaska in the United States. Indeed, different places have different cultural origins – as scholars such as Hayden, Weisheit et al, Donnermeyer and DeKeseredy, Ceccato, Harkness (see suggested readings) and many other scholars already have observed.

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