Algorithmic management is a core concept to analyse labour control on online labour platforms. It runs the risk, however, of oversimplifying the existing variety and complexity of control forms. In order to provide a basis for further research, this article develops a typology of labour control forms within crowdwork and discusses how they influence perceptions of working conditions. It identifies the two most relevant forms of labour control in crowdwork: direct control mainly takes the form of automated output control, while indirect control aiming at creating motivation and commitment is mainly exerted through ranking and reputation systems (gamification). The article shows that these forms of control and their combination are linked with very different ways of how platform workers perceive working conditions on platforms. In addition, the analysis shows significant differences regarding the perception of working conditions between those who work on platforms in addition to a regular employment as opposed to those who are self-employed and rely more strongly, if not fully, on their income from platform work. The analysis is based on qualitative and quantitative research on crowdwork platforms. In particular, it builds on an online survey conducted with 1,131 crowdworkers active on different types of platforms.
Scandals have been part of child protection history in Germany for more than 100 years and it can be shown that they have been driving forces for legislation and concept development on several occasions. Scientific methods for analysing unexpected and unintended negative case outcomes in child protection have entered the field only recently and several approaches to case analysis have been developed. Due to a strong tradition of counterfactual thinking in penal law and ‘Fallverstehan’ in social work most approaches are not informed by empirical research on child protection outcomes. Proceduralisation and resource expansion have been the main responses to public inquiries on errors and mistakes in child protection in Germany which are still non-mandatory. Currently the role of ‘serious case reviews’ in German child protection policy is open for debate and it is argued they offer only limited and conditional value for creating a better child protection system.