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  • Author or Editor: David Monk x
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Two largely separate populations of children and young people are known to Youth Offending Teams (YOTs): the first at risk of committing serious harm to others and the second for whom safeguarding concerns may have been identified. One of the early concerns voiced by many YOTs in relation to Multi-Agency Public Protection Arrangements (MAPPA) has been that, despite their inclusion as an agency with a ‘duty to cooperate’ through the 2003 Criminal Justice Act, arrangements on the ground have generally remained adult focused. This is in part a product of the fact that YOTs took their place at the MAPPA table some time after the police and the probation service had established closer working relationships. This chapter highlights key principles that underpin the development of public protection within youth justice in England and Wales. It also discusses some of the developments stemming from key partnerships (for instance between the Youth Justice Board and the Parole Board).

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Eighty per cent of Africans work in the informal economy. This chapter considers the highly informal, unregulated and often marginalized contexts that form the majority experience of living, working and learning. Situating the praxis of horizontal learning within these very normal contexts of informality demands renewed analysis into the questions of how horizontal learning is facilitated, by whom, with what resources, and why. This is explored through two empirical case studies offering distinct lenses on to the informal sector. In Gulu, the current dynamics of learning and inclusion among informal traders at a local market and in a set of food and clothing initiatives are considered. In Alice, the reflection is on an intentional effort on behalf of established, formal institutions to explore new approaches to teaching and learning through support of expansive informal learning in the context of food growing.

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