Current hate crime policy and practice is dominated by a criminal justice approach, focused on reporting and prosecuting acts of harassment and violence. While this is crucially important for victims and wider communities, it does not address the micro and local contexts, and wider structural factors, that contribute to the production of hate. The chapter adopts a socio-ecological model to examine the different scales of influence that shape the incidence of hate, and to identify potential points and spaces for intervention. This model draws on an emerging public health approach to hate, emphasizing preventative measures. The chapter discusses examples of prevention, including Community Safety Partnerships, safe spaces, addressing broader causal factors or ‘atmospheres’; and non-criminal justice responses, including restorative justice, community-based initiatives to improve social relations and celebrate diversity, and information and education campaigns.
Providing a much-needed perspective on exclusion and discrimination, this book offers a distinct geographical approach to the topic of hate studies.
Of interest to academics and students of human geography, criminology, sociology and beyond, the book highlights enduring, diverse and uneven experiences of hate in contemporary society. The collection explores the intersecting experiences of those targeted on the basis of assumed and historically marginalised identities.
It illustrates the role of specific spaces and places in shaping hate, why space matters for how hate is encountered and the importance of space in challenging cultures of hate. This analysis of who is able to use or abuse space offers a novel insight into discourses of hate and lived experiences of victimisation.
Paid employment is the primary marker of social inclusion. Welfare reform is encouraging disabled people to move from reliance on welfare to income from employment. For those with qualifications and skills new opportunities are emerging. For many, however, gaining access to and staying in employment is challenging. The proportion of disabled people in mainstream employment has plateaued at a level far below that for non-disabled people. The chapter examines two alternatives to paid employment for disabled people, which can offer the benefits of work without many of the difficulties of mainstream workplaces. First, social enterprises offer flexible and accommodating conditions of employment that recognise the complex challenges of impairment. Second, volunteering and creative arts can provide many of the personal and social benefits of paid employment and, through contributing something of social value, challenge dominant assumptions about the place of disabled people in society. Alternative forms of ‘work’, whilst not addressing the financial challenges faced by many, do offer possibilities of being valued and feeling included. The chapter draws on data and research evidence from Britain and Canada.
This chapter looks at various provisions for health and childcare support and mentions Prime Minister Tony Blair’s comments on the need for cross-cutting reviews across government departments arising from concerns that some policy areas either might be ignored if left to a sole department or might be tackled inadequately. It also notes that such reviews are meant to facilitate ‘joined-up’ government. The chapter explains that the Cross-Departmental Review of Services for Young Children was established, charged with considering all available evidence and producing policy recommendations for counteracting the cycle of disadvantage. It focuses on considerations relevant to government policy for early interventions such as Sure Start Local Programmes (SSLPs), which derive from research evidence and also from concerns that had arisen over a number of years in child health.
This book collection presents a distinctive spatial interpretation of ‘hate’, a term increasingly dominant in policy and academic study to describe prejudice and discrimination, and harassment and violence, towards members of marginalized social groups. Although the geographies of hate incidents have been documented, there has been limited study of the role of place and space in the construction, circulation and lived experience of hateful actions. This collection seeks to broaden the examination of hate from a commonly singular focus on hate crime, to consider the social and relational, spatial and structural, contexts and situations, through which hate is produced, experienced and responded to. The contributors are drawn from across a range of disciplines, including geography, criminology, sociology and youth work. They explore hate through a range of lenses, including systemic, institutional, discursive, criminal/legal, material, atmospheric and emotional. Contributors consider dimensions of hate in relation to specific and intersectional communities including, ‘race’ and religion, sexuality, gender and transgender identities, Gypsy and Traveller identities, disability and social class. The chapters in the collection are organized into three themes, to address different aspects of the landscapes of hate: considering and critiquing the concept of ‘hate’; experiences of hate in a range of contexts and everyday spaces; and different responses to hate.