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Author: Emma Carmel

This article outlines the key features of migration governance in the European Union (EU) and the diversity of forms of governance among its member states shaping migrants’ rights and experiences, particularly, but not solely, in relation to the labour market. It explains how EU and member state policies work to jointly construct particular categories of migrant status and pathways for migrants’ ‘differential integration’ across Europe. The article clarifies the diverse pathways through which EU states offer privileged access to entry, residence, employment and citizenship to some migrants over others and shows how the EU's migration governance limits and reproduces this diversity, with significant implications for the recognition and equality of the rights of different groups of migrants within one country, and comparatively across countries.

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Author: Emma Carmel

This chapter examines the attempt to bring a ‘European’ social into being through the ways in which the EU engages with social policy issues. It outlines the ways in which formal policy goals and governance processes interact to delineate the limits of the social, noting a number of ambiguities and tensions around the form that the social should take.

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Author: Emma Carmel

This chapter identifies several key elements of the EU’s migration governance by looking at the history of the EU’s engagement in and production of migration policies. It also suggests that there is an incomplete and problematic — but little contested — set of claims and institutional re-orderings, the centrality of which has been cemented with the most recent legal and programmatic changes in the EU of 2009 and 2010. The chapter further argues that migration governance within the EU is made coherent, authoritative, and ‘manageable’ by connecting two discursive and political logics using a third: social integration.

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Social Protection and the challenges of integration

This book provides innovative insights into one of the most controversial and important subjects of the 21st century: migration and social integration. Empirically, the volume offers comprehensive grounding in the relationships between migration, migration policies and social protection/inclusion in the enlarged European Union and its member states. Theoretically, the collection moves the debate on migration and integration policies onto new terrain. It explains how policies in this field are produced by institutional frameworks, political strategy, and contingent responses to events, but that these are themselves shaped by emotions, discourses, narratives, formal and informal aspects of governance. With contributions from leading international experts, the book can be used by academics and professionals as well as by undergraduate and postgraduate students.

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Authors: Emma Carmel and Jenny Harlock

In this article we argue that governance of the ‘dispersed state’ is being extended into the quasi-private realm of voluntary and community organisations and their activities. Focusing on public service delivery, we distinguish the formal and operational dimensions of governance, and argue that the goal of partnership carves out a newly governable terrain – the third sector – which is to be organised through the operational governance mechanisms of procurement and performance. The result is the attempted normalisation of VCOs as market-responsive, generic service providers, disembedded from their social and political contexts and denuded of ethical or moral content and purpose.

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Authors: Emma Carmel and Bozena Sojka

The presence of migrants in a society tests the limits of social citizenship and of what it means to belong. This is one of the reasons why questions of migrants’ rights and access to social security can be so controversial. Our ideas about ‘migrants’ and ‘migration’ rest on underlying assumptions of what it means to be a ‘member’ of society. In turn, these ideas require us to answer the questions: when does an outsider (the migrant ‘stranger’) become an insider (‘member’ of society)? When do ‘They’ become ‘Us’? What, if any, are reasonable conditions to establish whether someone should be recognised as ‘Us’? These questions are often controversial and the answers contested, and the UK is no exception.

The UK has long been a country of both emigration and immigration, and it is no stranger to anti-immigration movements. For well over 100 years, anti-immigration politics have contested who settles in the UK, from where, for how long, in what numbers, and with what rights to stay, work and make a claim on social resources (including social security). This anti-immigration politics has ranged from anti-Semitic opposition to the settlement of refugees from Russia and Eastern Europe in the early 20th century, to racist political rhetoric about threats to nationhood from post-colonial migration in the 1960s and 1970s, to fears of cultural and economic threat from East European migrants in the 2000s (Holmes, 1991; Gilroy, 2002). Furthermore, both migration and social security policies have long been shaped by racialised assumptions about national membership (Hall, 1997; Modood, 2005).

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Authors: Emma Carmel and Alfio Cerami

This chapter provides a sketch of the general treatment of the three elements that make up the empirical scope of the book. It then presents more critical reflections on how people can interpret and explain the appearance of policy variation in contentious and complex policy fields, such as migrant integration and migration. The discussion in the book uses the emerging United States (US) literature on the role of emotions in policymaking. Most of this literature has developed in relation to the US immigration policy. The chapter also includes an outline of the individual contributions that comprise this volume.

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This chapter summarises the discussions presented in the preceding chapters. It emphasises that this book is primarily concerned with the interaction of social and migration policies in specific social, political, and economic contexts, which affect the welfare, inclusion, and well-being of migrants. Several concepts, such as the labour market and employment; welfare systems and social rights; and migration, social protection, and the challenges of integration, are discussed and reviewed. The chapter concludes with some general reflections on policy and political trajectories and challenges in the field of migration, migration policy, and social protection.

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This book provides insights into one of the most controversial and important subjects of the twenty-first century: migration and social integration. Empirically, it offers comprehensive grounding in the relationships between migration, migration policies, and social protection/inclusion in the enlarged European Union and its member states. Theoretically, the collection moves the debate on migration and integration policies into new terrain. It explains how policies in this field are produced by institutional frameworks, political strategy, and contingent responses to events, but that these are themselves shaped by emotions, discourses, narratives, and formal and informal aspects of governance.

Full Access

This book provides insights into one of the most controversial and important subjects of the twenty-first century: migration and social integration. Empirically, it offers comprehensive grounding in the relationships between migration, migration policies, and social protection/inclusion in the enlarged European Union and its member states. Theoretically, the collection moves the debate on migration and integration policies into new terrain. It explains how policies in this field are produced by institutional frameworks, political strategy, and contingent responses to events, but that these are themselves shaped by emotions, discourses, narratives, and formal and informal aspects of governance.

Full Access