This chapter focuses on the link between international education and the human security of international students. It briefly discusses the concept of human security and reviews the political economy of growth in the market for international education services. It discusses the status of international students in the global market, followed by a case study of students’ security in Australia, stemming from a programme of 200 in-depth interviews with individuals studying onshore in that country. It argues that international education needs to be ‘re-normed’, principally through re-regulation for student security. It opines that this would more effectively cater for the rights of students to safety and social and economic inclusion in the host society.
Cross-border education is a fast growing and diverse global market, but little is known about how international students actually live. Using international and cross-country comparative analysis, this book explores how governments influence international student welfare, and how students shape their own opportunities.
As well as formal regulation by government, ‘informal regulation’ through students’ family, friendship and co-student networks proves vital to the overseas experience. Two case study countries - Australia and New Zealand - are presented and compared in detail. These are placed in the global regulatory and market contexts, with lessons for similar exporter countries drawn.
Regulating international students’ wellbeing will be of interest to international students, student representative bodies, education policy makers and administrators, as well as civil servants and policy makers in international organisations. Students and researchers of international and comparative social policy will be drawn into its focus on a little understood but vulnerable global population.
This chapter introduces and analyses the literature on regulation theory, governance, regulation and law, and the regulation of international education. It considers the national and global regulatory contexts and discusses the relationship between various forms and manifestations of regulation and regulation theory, and explores their usefulness for the analysis of international student welfare. The chapter also introduces the role of globalism and comparativism as guiding the analysis contained in the remainder of the book. Policy and regulatory arenas related to international education are also discussed, in particular international trade, trans-national regulatory instruments, migration and education quality assurance.
This chapter provides a comprehensive discussion of the global cross-border education market shares of the most prominent education exporter nations; that is, student ‘host’ countries. The major drivers of student mobility are discussed, and the special case of the doctoral education market segment is covered, given that much or most of this is not provided on a commercial basis. In order to provide the context for the analysis of Australia and New Zealand in the chapters to follow, several ‘competitor’ countries are discussed in this chapter, including the US, Canada and the UK, and the Asia Pacific region is also given special attention.
This chapter discusses key trends in the market shares of these two countries, to set the context for the discussion of the Australian and New Zealand international student welfare regulatory regimes in the following chapters. The policy factors affecting market share are also discussed. The various pressures on each are covered, as are the ‘prospects and problems’ in relation to market share and government policy.
This chapter discusses the various instruments of formal regulation of, and relating to, international education and student welfare in Australia. It covers the higher education law context, the Education Services for Overseas Students (ESOS) Act and the National Code of Practice for Registration Authorities and Training to Overseas Students (the ‘National Code’), together labelled the ‘ESOS Framework’. The chapter also discusses the vibrant international education policy debate in Australia, including government sponsored inquiries and reports, as well as discussion of the question of an education ombudsman. Most importantly, the key empirical findings in relation to the student welfare impact of formal and informal regulation are discussed and analysed.
This chapter discusses the various instruments of formal regulation of, and relating to, international education and student welfare in New Zealand. It covers the higher education law context, and the Code of Practice for the Pastoral Care of International Students. The chapter also discusses the international education policy debate in New Zealand, including the student grievance handling regime embodied in the International Education Appeal Authority, which constitutes an international student ombudsman. Most importantly the key empirical findings in relation to the student welfare impact of formal and informal regulation are discussed and analysed.
Having discussed the Australian and Zealand models of international student welfare regulation respectively in the two previous chapters, this chapter conducts a comparative analysis of the two national cases. The comparison is in terms of the formal regime in each country as well as the impact of that regime on the ground in terms of student welfare, analysed principally through review of formal and informal regulation in interviewee feedback. The context for the Australia-New Zealand discussion is set by a comprehensive review early on in the chapter of ‘the comparative evolution of welfare’ in the two countries. The comparative politics and policy literatures are harnessed to shed light on the findings of the chapter and the book more generally.
Having completed the comparative analysis of Australia and New Zealand in the previous chapter, this chapter focuses on current efforts to reform international education and student welfare nationally and globally. The chapter draws implications for reform at these two levels using the literatures on regulation and governance. Finally, the question of creating a ‘trans-national student citizenship’ regime is canvassed. This involves merging conceptual and practical lessons to combine regulation and governance perspectives, and to integrate national international student support structures with global mechanisms. Both formal and informal welfare aspects are considered, as is the relationship between them, for the fostering of trans-national student citizens.
This chapter provides a summary of the central conclusions of the book. It begins by discussing the lessons of the analysis for the question of managing the global mobility of students, and it discusses in summative form the main findings of the work. The central themes are exposed afresh for the purpose of rounding the discussion off.