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- Author or Editor: Ernesto Espindola x
President Rafael Correa (2007–17) was the leader of the Ecuadorian Citizens’ Revolution advanced by his movement Alianza País. Although a former critic of indefinite presidential re-elections, in 2014 Correa asked his bloc of parliamentarians to abolish presidential term limits. His request was approved and the constitution was amended. How can we account for Alianza País’ sudden decision to abolish presidential term limits, considering it had ratified these limits as recently as 2008? This article conducts a discourse analysis of the argument in favour of indefinite presidential re-elections in Ecuador. Courtesy of Lacanian psychoanalysis, in this article I argue that the Citizens’ Revolution’s shift can be fruitfully explained if we consider how the transgressive logic of enjoyment operates in ideology.
Measurements of poverty in terms of the principles of access to, and exercise of, a specific number of rights in areas like nutrition, safe drinking water, sanitation, housing, education and information show that 32 million children in Latin America were living in extreme poverty in 2007, and that the overall number of persons in poverty stood at almost 81 million. The chapter presents data on child poverty in Latin America, but explicitly measures it with a rights approach. This means considering children to be poor when at least one of their rights is unmet, or when they suffer at least one basic deprivation. Nonetheless, in child poverty, multiple deprivations occur simultaneously, reinforcing each other andundermining children’s and adolescents’ development. The chapter reports findings from a study which measured child poverty using two traditional methodologies: (i) direct methods (unmet basic needs), which were adapted to measure several levels of deprivation among children, based on the proposal by the University of Bristol and the London School of Economics; and (ii) indirect methods, represented by the measurement of absolute poverty according to per capita household income. It also presents data sources, methodology and aggregation indexes (appendix).