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  • Author or Editor: Håkan Johansson x
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This chapter looks at Ulrich Beck’s theory of risk society. This theory is noted to have inspired a lot of social policy scholars in analysing the erosion of the foundations of ‘traditional’ welfare states, as well as the rethinking of social policies. The chapter studies the ways this theory can be used to understand the rise of activation, its different manifestations and the introduction of individualised service provision. The notion of ‘radicalised individualisation’ is introduced, and the post-Foucauldian perspectives on individualisation are discussed.

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This chapter emphasises the pressures ‘from above’ and ‘from below’ that are shaping the transformation of welfare states. It outlines the dynamic relationship between the different conceptions of citizenship that are produced in these transformations. It differentiates the various forms of citizenship that are implicated in the modernisation of welfare states — liberal, libertarian, and republican — and capture the tensions between the active and passive dimensions of each. It traces the ways in which social policy reforms not only constrain social actors, subjecting them to new forms of governance and new technologies of power, but also open up the possibility of new forms and sites of social agency.

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This article aims to understand the prevalent leadership models in seven prominent leadership development programmes targeting emerging and aspiring civil society leaders in Sweden and the United Kingdom (UK), which have two different civil society regimes. An analytical framework based on ideal-typical leadership models (transactional, transformational and collaborative) helps us distil how programmes conceptualise first the relationship between leaders and the subjects of leadership, and second, how they conceptualise core leadership qualities. Our analysis of documents and interviews with programme designers finds that programmes in both contexts predominantly conceptualise leadership in an individualistic and personalised way. Yet, Swedish programmes have a stronger focus on top-down leadership models, whereas programmes in the UK increasingly incorporate elements of the collaborative leadership model. The identified similarities and differences call for further systematic analysis of the relationship between external, structural and organisational factors and the content of leadership development programmes across civil society regimes.

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Academic debates on the role and position of civil society organisations (CSOs) in welfare states largely refer to policies and practices outlined at the national level. They therefore fail to recognise variations within nations. Based on a comparative case study of three Swedish metropolitan cities, this article illustrates the importance of local, contextualised analyses. Through the concept of local civil society regimes, the study identifies three regime types, namely liberal, corporatist and social democratic. The key distinguishing factor between them relates to their different ideological positions regarding the role of CSOs in the marketisation and privatisation of public social welfare represented at the local level. The article argues for the need for further analysis to explore the implications of decentralisation from the perspective of local CSOs and their constituencies.

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