Search Results

You are looking at 1 - 10 of 15 items for

  • Author or Editor: James Nazroo x
Clear All Modify Search

The relationship between ethnicity and health has received intermittent focus in work concerned with ethnic inequalities. However, a close examination of issues related to health is particularly useful for three reasons. First, it is here that we can see how broader social and economic inequalities translate into profound outcomes for ethnic minority people; and also how policy and practice typically translate the two deeply social phenomena of ethnicity and health into essentialised constructs that are typically reduced to biology. Second, by examining the ways in which health and social care are provided, and the outcomes of that care, we can explore how an institution that is central to our lives serves to address, or amplify, broader racialised social structures. Third, the provision of health and social care services continues to rely heavily on the labour of ethnic minority and migrant people, therefore an examination of the experiences and outcomes for ethnic minority employees in the NHS sheds light on the broader context of ethnic inequalities in the labour market. In this context, it is worth noting that a mix of racialised discourses have: framed ‘migrants’ as intruders and a drain on the NHS; located the prevalence of certain diseases in cultural norms; and positioned ethnic minority health care staff as ‘fillers’ and as less competent and desirable than White British workers.

Open access
Author:

This chapter examines the patterning of ethnic inequalities in health in Great Britain. It discusses some of the assumptions that have underpinned much of the research and policy debate in relation to ethnic differences in health, and illustrates how far such differences are likely to be a consequence of the social inequalities faced by minority ethnic people in Britain. The chapter demonstrates how socioeconomic inequalities are too-readily dismissed as a potential explanation for ethnic inequalities in health, and shows how experiences of racial harassment and discrimination might also lead to an increased risk of poor health.

Restricted access

The relationship between ethnicity and health has received intermittent focus in work concerned with ethnic inequalities. However, a close examination of issues related to health is particularly useful for three reasons. First, it is here that we can see how broader social and economic inequalities translate into profound outcomes for ethnic minority people; and also how policy and practice typically translate the two deeply social phenomena of ethnicity and health into essentialised constructs that are typically reduced to biology. Second, by examining the ways in which health and social care are provided, and the outcomes of that care, we can explore how an institution that is central to our lives serves to address, or amplify, broader racialised social structures. Third, the provision of health and social care services continues to rely heavily on the labour of ethnic minority and migrant people, therefore an examination of the experiences and outcomes for ethnic minority employees in the NHS sheds light on the broader context of ethnic inequalities in the labour market. In this context, it is worth noting that a mix of racialised discourses have: framed ‘migrants’ as intruders and a drain on the NHS; located the prevalence of certain diseases in cultural norms; and positioned ethnic minority health care staff as ‘fillers’ and as less competent and desirable than White British workers.

Regrettably these discourses have had a surprising persistence and have been promoted in political and popular arenas. In 1948, those arriving on the Windrush to help rebuild after the Second World War and fill the gaps in health and transport were subject to explicit crude and violent racism and this hostility was not limited to personal prejudices.

Open access
  • Younger (aged 25-49) White men had a consistent advantage in the labour market between 1991 and 2011 compared with those in other ethnic groups, who were more likely to be not working or working in less secure employment.

  • White women aged 25-49 also had a consistent employment advantage over the last 20 years compared with women in other ethnic groups.

  • Exceptions to the pattern of White advantage were Indian and Chinese men, whose initial high unemployment and self-employment rates converged with those of the White group over the 20-year period. Black Caribbean women had similar labour market participation rates to White women from 1991 to 2011.

  • At older ages (50-74), Black African men and women had the highest rates of labour market participation over the past 20 years. This is likely due to the age structure of the Black African group, where there are relatively few people aged over 65.

  • Younger Pakistani and Bangladeshi men saw large falls in unemployment rates over the period 1991-2011 (respectively, from 25 to 10 per cent and from 26 to 11 per cent), but unemployment rates for these groups remain much higher than for White men.

  • Black Caribbean and Black African younger men had rates of unemployment consistently more than double those of White men throughout the period 1991-2011.

  • For Bangladeshi men, the fall in unemployment was balanced by a rise in part-time work; the 11-fold increase in part-time work for this group between 1991 and 2011 was larger than for any other ethnic group.

Restricted access

This chapter looks at the ways in which ethnic identity is expressed using data produced by the Evidence for Equality National Survey (EVENS). It first examines how people describe their ethnicity in their own words and describes the types of identities that are not currently captured in standardised ethnicity classifications. It also examines the prevalence of non-standardised ways of describing ethnicity across standardised ethnic groupings and reflects on the potential reasons for the existing differences. It further looks at the importance of ethnic and religious identities for people across ethnic and religious backgrounds, and provides an overview of how often people engage in practices relating to their ethnicity and/or religion, such as the food they eat, clothes they wear and/or participating in more general ethnic specific activities. Finally, the chapter also considers how much people from different ethnic groups feel that they belong to British, English, Scottish and Welsh societies.

Open access

This chapter examines the experiences of racism and discrimination reported by different ethnic groups in the UK, using data produced by the Evidence for National Equality Survey (EVENS). Comparisons are drawn between the racism and discrimination reported as having occurred prior to the COVID-19 pandemic, and those reported after the start of the pandemic. The chapter focuses on racist assault (verbal, physical and damage to property) and racial discrimination occurring in institutional and social settings, comparing the experiences of different ethnic groups, which forms of racism and discrimination are most prevalent, how experiences differ by gender and what the impact of the pandemic has been. In addition, the analysis examines the extent to which ethnic minority people are concerned about possibly experiencing racism and discrimination. Finally it examines respondents’ experiences of policing during the pandemic.

Open access

This chapter looks at the labour market status of all ethnic groups using data produced by the Evidence for National Equality Survey (EVENS). It also studies their labour market outcomes in the form of labour force participation, employment and unemployment during the COVID-19 pandemic, both in absolute terms and relative to the White British majority. Furthermore, it compares the precarious employment (solo self-employed, temporary employment or zero-hours contracts) situation of ethnic minority groups to that of White British people. Due to the COVID-19 pandemic, workers were placed on furlough, increased their work hours, took reductions in pay and changed occupations. This chapter therefore studies the differences in probability of these events occurring between ethnic minority people and their White British counterparts. Finally, it addresses the question whether ethnic minority people experience a greater probability of worrying about job security than White British people. Importantly, the analysis treats women and men separately throughout the chapter.

Open access

Associations between ethnicity and health status have been noted from the time when quantitative health data were first recorded. Thus in 1845 Frederich Engels noted the poor health and mortality record of the Irish living in England.1 Engels also drew attention to the miserable social and environmental circumstances in which the majority of the Irish population lived and it is clear that he considered these to underlie their poor health. Similarly, in a 1916 report from the US, John W. Trask concluded that the lower death rates among white people than black people reflected more favourable socioeconomic circumstances, rather than any inherent ethnic differences.2 Since then the complex interrelationships between ethnicity, social position and health have remained a central concern of studies in this area, as the material presented in this chapter indicates.

The approach we have taken is an epidemiological one. Descriptive epidemiology provides data on how disease, disability and death are distributed between and within populations. Analytical epidemiology aims at uncovering the causes of disease and thus the reasons for the distribution of disease that are seen. Epidemiological studies concerned with ethnicity have taken both descriptive and analytical approaches. There are now extensive data demonstrating differentials in health status between ethnic groups and a growing body of literature analysing the contribution of socioenvironmental factors to this.

Restricted access
State of the Nation

Available Open Access under CC-BY-NC licence. 50 years after the establishment of the Runnymede Trust and the Race Relations Act of 1968 which sought to end discrimination in public life, this accessible book provides commentary by some of the UK’s foremost scholars of race and ethnicity on data relating to a wide range of sectors of society, including employment, health, education, criminal justice, housing and representation in the arts and media.

It explores what progress has been made, identifies those areas where inequalities remain stubbornly resistant to change, and asks how our thinking around race and ethnicity has changed in an era of Islamophobia, Brexit and an increasingly diverse population.

Open access
Findings from the Evidence for Equality National Survey

ePUB and ePDF available Open Access under CC-BY-NC-ND licence.

This book examines how ethnicity shaped experiences of the COVID-19 pandemic in Britain.

Drawing from the Evidence for Equality National Survey (EVENS), the book compares the experiences of ethnic and religious minority groups and White British people in work and finances, housing and communities, health and wellbeing, policing and politics, racism and discrimination in the UK. Using unrivalled data in terms of population and topic coverage and complete with bespoke graphics, contributors present new evidence of ethnic inequalities and racism, opening them up to debate as crucial social concerns.

Written by leading international experts in the field, this is a must-read for anyone interested in contemporary ethnic inequalities and racism, from academics and policy makers to voluntary and community sector organisations.

Open access