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  • Author or Editor: Jane Healy x
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Originating in the work of Crenshaw, in her ground-breaking feminist research on the multiple forms of discrimination and oppression experienced by African-American women (1991), intersectionality is more than a ‘buzzword’ of feminist researchers (Davis, 2008). Rather, contemporary researchers have utilized an intersectional approach to explore oppression not simply on the basis of gender and race but also of other sources of discrimination and oppression, such as class, sexual orientation and ability. This chapter charts the development of intersectionality, from the work of Black critical race scholars in the US to its global embrace within feminist academic literature and research. Within criminology, intersectionality is surprisingly late to embracing its utility, yet applying intersectionality advocates for a consideration of the multiple, intersecting layers of oppression or subordination, demonstrating how the impact and experiences of crime, deviance, social harm and inequalities can vary. Its approach to researching minority groups offers much to our constructions and interpretations of the meaning and consequences of multiple, structured and overlapping categories of identity, difference and disadvantage. This chapter provides the foundation for future sections to demonstrate how much intersectionality offers to contemporary criminological fields.

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There is little sustained exploration of intersectionality in disability studies and in hate crime research. A unified approach to disability through the social model paradigm may have distracted from the diversity of disabilities. Additionally, intersectionality is at odds with the silo-framework of hate crime policy and legislation. Both concepts fail to fully acknowledge the multiple, overlapping and complicated experiences of risk and victimization. This chapter draws upon research on disabled people’s experiences of hate crime (Healy, 2019). Intersectional analysis of a corpus of 12 disabled participants identified the difficulty in categorizing individual experiences through one strand of hate crime. Participants recognized that they were targeted for multiple reasons, such as their sexual orientation, gender and disability, and the chapter demonstrates how disabled women and men interpret their experiences differently. The chapter argues that the current strand-based approach to hate crime disguises the variety of intersecting elements of identity that, combined, can increase risk of victimization while at the same time reducing a victims’ likelihood of reporting their experiences.

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This chapter draws together some of the common themes and areas of crossover produced by the individual contributors. The chapter reflects on some of the key issues identified throughout the book that warrant further investigation, utilizing an intersectional framework to enhance our understanding of such relevant topics. The aim is to centre criminological and Criminal Justice research that is conducted and analysed intersectionally, work that often remains on the margins of criminology in the United Kingdom. This chapter reflects on some of the core tenets of intersectionality and how these have manifested within individual chapters. These chapters are situated within issues of social inequality, social context and social justice. This chapter highlights the lack of intersectional, criminological research in the United Kingdom and calls for further intersectional work to be conducted.

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This edited collection showcases contemporary criminological studies that utilize intersectional frameworks. The collection highlights the utility of the concept of intersectionality and also addresses the current gap in literature on applying intersectionality to contemporary criminological studies in particular. Criminology as a discipline has been slow to employ the application of intersectionality to research, analysis and theory, and yet these chapters demonstrate the contribution it makes to our understanding of victims, perpetrators and social structures. It is at the forefront of feminist studies and this collection offers the opportunity for a long-overdue recognition of it within criminology. This edited collection therefore addresses a topical issue and serves as a strong reminder and evidence that identities cannot be reduced and understood along a single axis.

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This edited collection showcases contemporary criminological studies that utilize intersectional frameworks. The collection highlights the utility of the concept of intersectionality and also addresses the current gap in literature on applying intersectionality to contemporary criminological studies in particular. Criminology as a discipline has been slow to employ the application of intersectionality to research, analysis and theory, and yet these chapters demonstrate the contribution it makes to our understanding of victims, perpetrators and social structures. It is at the forefront of feminist studies and this collection offers the opportunity for a long-overdue recognition of it within criminology. This edited collection therefore addresses a topical issue and serves as a strong reminder and evidence that identities cannot be reduced and understood along a single axis.

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This edited collection showcases contemporary criminological studies that utilize intersectional frameworks. The collection highlights the utility of the concept of intersectionality and also addresses the current gap in literature on applying intersectionality to contemporary criminological studies in particular. Criminology as a discipline has been slow to employ the application of intersectionality to research, analysis and theory, and yet these chapters demonstrate the contribution it makes to our understanding of victims, perpetrators and social structures. It is at the forefront of feminist studies and this collection offers the opportunity for a long-overdue recognition of it within criminology. This edited collection therefore addresses a topical issue and serves as a strong reminder and evidence that identities cannot be reduced and understood along a single axis.

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Examining the Boundaries of Intersectionality and Crime
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This is the first collection dedicated to the use of intersectionality as theory, framework and methodology in criminological research.

It draws together contemporary British research to demonstrate the value of intersectionality theory in both familiar and innovative applications, including race, gender, class, disability, sexual orientation and age. Experts explore a range of experiences relating to harm, hate crimes and offending, and demonstrate the impacts of oppression on complex personal identities that do not fit neatly in homogenised communites.

Challenging conventional perspectives, it positions intersectionality firmly into the mainstream of criminology.

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This chapter outlines the structure and approach to the collection, starting with an introduction to the concept of intersectionality. It positions the book’s epistemological standpoint within broader constructions of intersectionality, in that it offers an analytic approach to a range of social issues and problems, beyond race and class, as advocated by Hill Collins and Bilge (2016) and Crenshaw (1991). Subsequently it presents key themes and questions that are addressed within individual contributor chapters, including a consideration of the following questions: what factors drove individual authors to choose intersectionality within their research; what challenges and merits it introduced; and how individual authors negotiate their positioning in relation to their research. Consequently, it considers how intersectionality can contribute to our conceptualization of contemporary criminal justice matters.

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This research draws upon an international study investigating domestic violence perpetrator support services from five European countries, which was conducted during 2020. Front-line professionals from the partner countries took part in focus groups which focused on the positives and negatives of perpetrator support provision. This article reports specifically on findings that pertained to the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic. All of the participating countries, the UK, Italy, Romania, Greece and Cyprus, reported increases in domestic violence and abuse, as a result of ‘lockdowns’, home quarantines and restrictions of movement on the general population. Alongside this increasing level of reported gender-based violence, many perpetrator intervention and prevention programmes have had to adapt to online or alternative methods of service provision. In this article we use intersectionality to analyse the impact of remote service delivery. We raise key equality issues in the shift to remote working, which risks having ableist ramifications. We conclude by emphasising the importance of increased and sustained funding that acknowledges the service increases during the pandemic.

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The sociology of sport literature details the nature and extent of racism in sport – mostly men’s sport, and in particular men’s football. The literature shows that racism was present in the men’s game in the United Kingdom (UK) before, and after, the inception of the 1993 Let’s Kick Racism Out of Football campaign (now Kick it Out). Sport sociologists have offered critical accounts of how racism impacts men’s football and men footballers. These analyses rarely cover women’s experiences or intersect with constructions of hate crimes and misogyny. Despite significant campaigning by feminist criminologists, the Law Commission, in its 2021 review, has recommended not to add misogyny to hate crime legislation. Currently, the law in England and Wales protects race or ethnicity, religion or beliefs, sexual orientation, disability and transgender identity. Hate crime literature has failed to consider the intersections of multiple forms of marginalization, such as the impact of both race and gender. Despite many police forces in England and Wales collecting data on misogyny, prosecutions are limited to the existing five hate crime strands, thus reducing the experiences of many women and girls to a single identity characteristic. This fails to acknowledge the reality of their lived experiences. In this chapter, we review the shortfalls in both sociological and criminological analyses of gender and racism in football. We demonstrate the value of a focus on women footballers in developing a feminist approach to gender, racism and hate crimes. In this way, we conclude that it is time to connect sexism, racism, misogynoir and football to ensure a hate crime framework that includes women and girls in sport.

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