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  • Author or Editor: Janice Morphet x
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This chapter reviews the UK’s relationship with EU before and since its membership in 1972. It argues that the UK joined the EU with its head rather than its heart. It considers this with the EU’s role and influence in policy shaping and leadership in that period. Finally, it examines the influence of the EU in the delivery of ten key UK policy areas introduced since 1979 which have been seen as domestic policies but have their provenance in pooled policy. These include privatization of the public services, devolution and the smoking ban. The chapter argues that there is a culture of denial of the influence of the UK pooling its policies within the EU and the effects that this has had over time.

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This chapter reviews various approaches available to making and analyzing public policy. It considers these as mechanisms of policy making within an overall strategic context and reviews them against outcomes. The approaches here include those mechanisms of policy making that are more formal, such as treaties which are seldom considered as policy shaping mechanisms, and, this book argues, have been of considerable importance within the UK context and policy transfer. The more informal means considered include policy communities and policy networks. The chapter also includes a short discussion on the emerging debate on policy mobility within this context. It also covers the effects of not making policy and concludes with an additional category on policy as fashion.

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This chapter reviews the approach to making policy within the UK within central government. It also includes a discussion on the implications and influences on UK policy making since the implementation of devolution in 1999. The chapter considers the influences on British public policy making primarily from those influences which are internal and those which are external. The internal influences include political party ideology, electoral cycles and role of internal policy units. There is a longer discussion on the role of the civil service in public policy making. The external influences are grouped into four categories - quasi-informal, opaque informal, formal and quasi-voluntaristic. The chapter concludes that the polices that have been devolved within the UK are those policies that the UK has pooled within the EU and are of less interest to the centre of government and the civil service.

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This chapter discusses the range of theories and approaches to analyzing and evaluating the EU’s approach to policy making and shaping. It starts this through a consideration of external influences on the EU including its membership of the WTO and OECD. It continues with a discussion on the effects of these external influences and how they operate in shaping EU policies and then translating these into the ways in which they influence the policies of the member states. This analysis continues with a discussion on the integrationist and intergovernmentalist schools of argument and separates these from Europeanisation assessments that can be both formal and informal in their approaches. The chapter also discusses Europeanisation as an intended and unintended consequence. The chapter concludes with a discussion on the type of governance machine that the EU embodies.

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This chapter reviews the role of the EU in negotiating trade settlements for the member states. It discusses the pathway to the current position, including the role of the UK in supporting the EU’s position and the ways in which the negotiations on trade have been incorporated into wider legislative negotiation over time. It particularly focuses on the implementation of agreements to open the public sector to competition and the implications of this for the UK public sector. This includes the agencification of UK central government and the selective approach to the implementation of competiton within the central state. It also discusses the implications for the former nationalized industries and the effect of the regulatory framework that now exists for their operation. It also covers the reshaping of local government that has been a result of systematically opening local services to competiton and local government continuation of a mixed economy subsequently.

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This chapter reviews the role of the UK in the creation of the European Single Market, including the leadership of the UK Commissioner Lord Cockfield, Mrs. Thatcher, as then Prime Minster, and Jacques Delors, then President of the European Commission. The chapter argues that the timing of the negotiation and implementation of the Single Market on the arbitrary date of 1992 was chosen to coincide with both Mrs. Thatcher’s neo-liberal market ideology and the UK presidency of the European Council. The chapter particularly illustrates the way in which the Single Market was established to include all the wider implications of internal trade including the free movement of labour, business regulations, internal transport as tools of competitiveness. The chapter also demonstrates that shaping influencing on the key transport projects supported by the EU to improve internal access have been the ones that have been implemented within the UK without any reference to EU policy or support. It concludes that these policies without clear derivation become orphan policies that emerge and have no political hinterland.

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This chapter sets out the EU’s approach to environmental policy and uses it to illustrate the ways in which policy mechanisms operate in practice. Environmental policy has been used as it is an area that has expanded and grown during the UK’s period of EU membership. It reviews the way in which environment policy has been expanded from a peripheral interest to one that is now at the heart of the EU’s programme. It is a policy that has been delivered through a programmed approach and this again is a useful illustration of the EU’s working methods. The chapter continues with an examination of the UK’s reception of this changing EU policy approach. This ranges from an initial complacent view to one that fundamentally challenged the UK’s understanding of the way in which the EU works. It considers how the UK has fared on environmental policy compared with other member states and concludes with a discussion of environmental policy as an exemplar of the implications for the UK of pooling policies.

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This chapter discusses the way in which the EU has developed approaches to using territory as a policy instrument. It explores this through the literature on multi-level governance, examining it as a theory but also as a model, an analytical framework and a policy which has intended outcomes. The chapter particularly considers the principle of subsidiarity and its emerging role in the operation of EU strategy and policy. It also discusses the more recent emergence of the principle of territorial cohesion. The chapter continues to discuss the implications of the application of these principles within the UK, including the implementation of core state policies of devolution and localism. Finally it looks at the impact of these policies on regional institutions within the UK and the impact on local government.

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This concluding chapter of the book examines the way in which the EU shapes UK public policy in practice. It does this through a series of analytical lenses including agenda setting, the application of a programmatic approach to government policy, policy persistence and operational style. It also consider the detachment of policy from delivery to create orphan polices and the amplification of EU policy through processes of ‘gold plating’. Finally there is a discussion of the use of ‘blame culture’. The chapter goes on to consider the implications of this shaping including quasi-marketisation of the public sector, constitutional reform, the development of policy institutions and the development of policy culture. In particular there is a discussion about the effects of depoliticisation on policy issues within the UK which are EU in origin. It also covers the UK’s policy dependency on the EU. The final part of this chapter considers the ways in which the provenance of EU policies within the UK can be detected including intertextuality, the role of meta narratives, orphan policies, continuity between political parties, persistence in delivery, absenting the ‘other’, shadow synchronicity, indirect comparison and comparative coincidence.

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Leadership and management are critical to the way in which planning is practised, perceived, resourced and trusted. Yet over the past 50 years, in the UK, planning practice has been criticised by governments, companies and communities for its failure to be ‘effective’ (Clifford and Tewdwr-Jones, 2013), albeit that these detractors have failed to define the ideal process. These criticisms have been made by both major political parties operating in England (Barker, 2004, 2006; Osborne, 2014). They have primarily been aimed at local government, at the institutional scale that is responsible for the operation of the planning system and at local authority planners, in particular for their inability to manage the planning system in a way that supports the national economic interests. This had led to a continuing process of reforms to the planning system in England since 2004. In Scotland, Northern Ireland and Wales, there have also now been major reforms within the planning system, but the relationship between those engaged in the planning system and politicians has mostly been more positive (Morphet, 2011a, 2011b; Morphet and Clifford, 2014).

However, this is a simplistic view of the way in which the UK planning system operates. Planning professionals are more similar to lawyers than doctors; they advise others who take the decisions. If leadership and management are to be considered, all those with a stake in the planning system have a role to play. In local authorities, this includes councillors, the chief executive, chief officers and the community as well as planners. Part of the planner’s role is to evaluate the proposals, policies and projects within the planning framework, identifying ‘imagined users’ (Ivory, 2013) and ensuring that these conceptualisations are consistent with reality.

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