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  • Author or Editor: Janice Morphet x
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Theory and practice
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Planning is central to economic, social and environmental life but its practice is frequently criticised by all who engage in it. Seen as too restrictive by those who promote development and too weak by those opposing it, planners who advise on proposals cannot sit on the fence. Is it the planning system that is problematic or is it the planners who work within it? This valuable book examines these issues at the continuing professional development level and discusses the ways in which management theories, tools and techniques can be applied to planning practice and used by all who engage in it.

Written by an experienced author and widely respected academic, the book includes case studies and question and answer sections, and will be valuable through both initial and continuous professional education, helping candidates prepare for examinations and subsequent management.

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An effective practice approach
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This important text book is the first to be written about infrastructure planning in Britain. Written by an experienced author, the book reviews the rapid rise in the use of infrastructure delivery planning at national and neighbourhood level. The key components of infrastructure delivery are set out and analysed, including the development of government policy, planning regulation, funding, environmental processes and legal challenges. Situating this within international, European and domestic economic, territorial and social policy, the author draws on a variety of practical examples to discuss the role of different institutions in the delivery of infrastructure and to illustrate the various issues and merits of each approach. This is a key text for those engaged in the study and application of infrastructure delivery planning including planners, engineers, public administrators and policy advisers.

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Britain’s relationship with the European Union (EU) is frequently viewed as simple by the media and politicians. In ways - never really explained - the EU has managed to ‘take away’ Britain’s sovereign powers and has the ability to determine much of its legislation. The history of how this has occurred is never discussed, unlike other countries in Europe.How Europe shapes British public policy examines the development of the EU as a sectarian issue in the UK. It discusses the effects of disengagement through the political practices of policy making and the implications that this has had for depoliticisation in government and the civil service. It considers the effects of EU membership in shaping key policy areas - trade and privatisation, the single market and the environment, and subsidiarity in the development and implementation of devolved and decentralised governance.This book gives new and essential insights for students and practitioners of politics, governance and international relations.

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Policies, Practices and Outcomes
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In this comprehensive account, Janice Morphet analyses the role and use of outsourcing within the UK public sector since the mid-1970s.

Morphet examines the many drivers for the use of outsourcing in the public sector, including international agreements, new public management, performativity and austerity. She also takes in to account the role and failures of the private sector and its response to the opening up of public sector competition.

By investigating the way that outsourcing has been used in different service sectors and across scales, the book illustrates the impact it has had on ideology, policy narratives and public expectations in the present.

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Challenging Austerity through Municipal Entrepreneurialism

This book provides crucial insight into the fight back against austerity by local authorities through emerging forms of municipal entrepreneurialism in housing delivery.

Capturing this moment within its live context, the authors examine the ways that local authorities are moving towards increased financial independence based on their own activities to implement new forms and means of housebuilding activity. They assess these changes in the context of the long-term relationship between local and central government and argue that contemporary local authority housing initiatives represent a critical turning point, whilst also providing new ways of thinking about meting housing need.

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Since 1980 a number of Labour-run authorities have instituted various forms of decentralised services in order to make the communities they serve aware of local government and to have some formalised role. Through the provision of services at neighbourhood level, authorities have moved toward client centred administration. In Tower Hamlets, an Inner London Borough, the incoming Liberal administration in 1986 immediately decentralised all the council services to be managed within seven neighbourhoods. This paper considers the development of this initiative, and some of the potential issues such an approach raises.

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Planners are employed almost equally in the private and the public sectors (RTPI, 2014). Most of the research and literature that specifically deals with planning and management issues is directed at the public sector and at its policy, planning and regulatory roles. In the private sector, advice for practitioners is available from the websites of professional bodies (the Royal Institution of Chartered Surveyors, Royal Town Planning Institute and Chartered Institute of Personnel and Development). It is also important to consider the management issues of professionals in specialist consulting and corporate organisations.

Planners are also active in the third ‘not for profit’ sector in community and charitable organisations (Wates and Knevitt, 2013). While the numbers of planners employed in the third sector is small, many planners also volunteer for planning aid activities. In the third sector, planners may also be involved in lobbying government or working within community technical aid or in development trusts directly with groups or individuals seeking to respond or participate on local issues (Warburton, 2013). These may range from a planning application, a local or neighbourhood plan or a national infrastructure project. This chapter discusses the ways in which planning is managed and delivered within organisations in each sector and at different scales of organisation.

Planning responsibilities in the public sector are held by a range of different bodies and organisations. These include central government and its agencies, local authorities including neighbourhood and parish councils, and national parks. Each of these organisations is accountable to democratically elected politicians and this is what distinguishes all public sector bodies from those in the private and voluntary sectors.

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Leading and managing planning and planners is critical to the delivery of sustainable places and the effective use of land. Planners provide leadership by advising their clients or their organisation. They manage the resources available to them, particularly people and finance. Planners do not make final planning decisions unless they are in political or other executive roles, although they do take many management decisions that influence the way that the planning is delivered. In the private sector, planning decisions are made by the client acting on behalf of the owners or shareholders of the organisation and these decisions will be framed within due diligence and audit frameworks. The resources required to advise on any decision can be provided from within the organisation, from an external consultant or through a combination of the two. In the public sector, decisions are made by politicians and although they may delegate the determination of smaller planning applications to the planners employed in their organisation, politicians retain responsibility. In the third sector, decisions will be made by trustees or board members, who are legally responsible for the organisation.

When considering the leadership and management of planning, understanding this advisory role is paramount. However, planners have considerable informal power and influence over the way that the planning system is interpreted and applied through the work that they do (Eversley, 1973; Gunder, 2014). This has to be transparent, and the selection of evidence, its application and interpretation are open to scrutiny and challenge. Planning decision making is influenced by public consultation and participation, which are core features of the planning process and also reflect the relative power relationships between consultees and those making the decisions (Rydin, 1999; Campbell and Marshall, 2000; Conrad et al, 2011).

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While much management activity is concerned with the day to day,

management has no choice but to anticipate the future, to attempt to mould it and to balance short-range and long-term goals. It is not given to mortals to do either of these things well. But lacking divine guidance, business management must make sure that these difficult responsibilities are not overlooked or neglected, but taken care of as humanly possible. (Drucker, 2011, p 8)

Strategic management is concerned with the long-term direction of any organisation, its objectives and associated business plans to achieve these ends. Strategic management will primarily be concerned with positive action for the organisation such as growth and development. At its core, strategic management makes decisions that will affect the organisation in the future. These actions may also be defensive such as preventing other organisations from taking market share by purchasing land or through other actions such as mergers and acquisitions.

Planning is a key element of strategic planning. If an organisation is planning growth, it may need more accommodation for production or delivery of services. Developers may take options to purchase land. Some organisations have large land holdings that have been in their ownership for hundreds of years and they will take a long-term view of their own development programme as patient investors.

Strategic management comprises of a number of components. First, there is a review of long-term objectives set in the context of the purpose of the organisation. This review may confirm the objectives or result in their amendment, following which the objectives will be implemented. Some organisations translate this objective-setting process into a mission statement that is then used to set organisational priorities (French et al, 2001; Fang et al, 2013).

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People are a key resource and cost in any organisation, particularly those in the professional services sector. In delivering planning, staff are the main cost, whether in a public service or consultancy. Planners may make up the majority of employees in an organisation such as a planning consultancy or they may be part of a larger organisation, such as a local authority. Although the majority of planners in the private sector may be employed in organisations primarily focused on planning, some are part of larger management consultancies or retailers (RTPI, 2014). Some planning consultancies employ more planners than local authorities (Sell, 2013). The structure of the organisation and the way that planners are managed within it will have a key effect on employees’ contribution to the organisation as a whole, and in particular on its efficiency in serving its community or clients. Since then, both the number of chartered town planners and the proportion of planners employed in the private sector has grown. While planning in the private sector has experienced major growth, local authorities have experienced financial pressures. This has led to planning services being scrutinised in an attempt to identify cost-cutting and income-generation activities. At the same time, there have been reductions in specialist staff such as heritage officers (IHBC, 2013). There has also been an increase in the volume of delegated planning applications, which cost 90% less than applications put to councillors for decision (PAS, 2008). Planners and support staff have increasingly been employed on short term contracts to increase resource flexibility.

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