In this chapter, using a case analysis of personal assistance in Norway, the author argues that it is fruitful to combine the concepts of personalisation and co-production. Co-production represents a stronger version of personalisation, but there are also different strengths of coproduction, implying gradual manifestations of user involvement and participation. Through exploring the history of the Norwegian personal assistance model, BPA, the chapter considers different interplays between personalisation and co-production. It concludes that there is the highest level of personalisation where the professionals are no longer directly involved because the users are self-organised. While this obviously is the future policy aim of some users, this will not be an option for others. The right to BPA will provide a future dividing line between those who possibly will be viewed as able to reach this self-organising level, and those for whom the welfare state will still be very important.
The ageing population and long-term care policies of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development countries have put pressure on social care work, creating patterns of difficult ethical situations. This article contributes to contextualising such situations by applying a ‘micro-ethics’ perspective and a theoretical framework that connects micro-ethics to macro-sociological contexts, and combines the concept of ‘moral distress’ (of healthcare professionals) with feminist ethics. Based on two case studies from an ethnographic study of Norway’s long-term care, findings demonstrate how ethically difficult moments connect with structural factors, including bureaucratic, managerialist and de-professionalised models of social care work, and new relationships between older people and their families.