This chapter looks at the sometimes contradictory ideas of fairness underlying particular current national and local education policy and practice and tries to assess implications for a fair education system. Flagship educational policies including efforts to tackle the attainment gap are considered, which draw on ideas of equality of opportunity and meritocracy. Policies that focus on choice, based on ideas of libertarianism and the extension of a marketised economy to education are also considered. Additional aspects of fairness which are not central to policy, but which are important to broaden current conceptions beyond distributive justice, are then considered, such as relational justice. The chapter concludes by suggesting seven principles of educational fairness as a way to operationalise both distributive justice and relational justice.
Hager and Brudney (2004, 2005) developed a Net Benefits Index (NBI) to measure the performance of volunteer programmes. Their benchmarking tool scores an organisation's performance against six specific benefits and eight recognised challenges that organisations face in recruiting and managing volunteers. This article extends the NBI by demonstrating its use as an internal programme evaluation tool within two health non-profit organisations. By surveying all staff and volunteers (rather than relying on the organisational response from a single individual), the tool provides valuable insights into volunteer and staff attitudes about the volunteer programme. In addition to critiquing the NBI, this article highlights reasons for divergent scores between volunteers and staff and the improvements that can be made to a volunteer programme's effectiveness as a result of measurement.