Policing and security provision are subjects central to criminology. Yet there are newer and neglected forms that are currently unscrutinised.
By examining the work of community safety officers, ambassador patrols, conservation officers, and private police foundations, who operate on and are animated by a frontier, this book reveals why criminological inquiry must reach beyond traditional conceptual and methodological boundaries in the 21st century.
Including novel case studies, this multi-disciplinary and international book assembles a rich collection of policing and security frontiers both geographical (e.g. the margins of cities) and conceptual (dispersion and credentialism) not seen or acknowledged previously.
introduced the idea of emotional labour to examine how emotions are performed and managed in work settings. Recent writings have extended Hochschild’s works on emotional labour by focusing on the body and collective emotions. Contributing to this literature, we draw on interviews conducted with circus aerialists from several Canadian cities to understand the complexities of emotions, performance and work. Drawing from interviews with 31 aerialists, we examine what aerialists say about emotion management during their performances and travels. We analyse how emotional labour overlaps with the bodily control necessary to engage in circus aerialism as a form of risky work. We also examine how emotional labour is conducted in relation to audience type and the emotional climates that emerge at the group level in aerialist troupes. We conclude by discussing what these findings mean for literatures on emotions and on circus work.
This introductory chapter provides an overview of the idea of the ‘next frontier’ in criminology and in studies of policing and security. The book’s understanding of the frontier theme has threefold, overlapping meanings. First, frontier means the edge and realms beyond conventional policing and security thinking and practice. Second, frontier refers to how these forms of policing and security are taken up by scholars in ways beyond or across clear-cut disciplinary boundaries. Third, the frontier has a specific meaning in colonial countries such as Canada and Australia, where state formation involved violence and assimilation targeting Indigenous people. Criminology should be pushed to the edge of its current understandings to theorise and examine the shifting landscapes of policing and security practice. When criminology arrives at the edge and adopts the notion of frontier, it reveals previously hidden or less elaborated insights about policing and security provision.
This chapter discusses the methodologies developed to accomplish the travel to policing and security frontiers. It considers elements of qualitative research on policing and security agents on frontiers of thinking and practice. This includes freedom of information (FOI) requests, which are a cutting-edge method and thus befitting research on frontiers. The chapter then looks at common barriers encountered on the way to frontiers. While it is often assumed that policing and security agencies and agents, including those working on frontiers, are difficult to access due to their bureaucratic, secretive, or obscure nature, this is not necessarily the case. Yet, getting to the frontiers of policing and security is not without pitfalls. These pitfalls are like falling into risk categories — ironically like those sometimes used by policing and security agents in their own work.
This chapter examines community safety officers (CSOs), transitional agents who are linked to public police, and more broadly considers community policing frontiers. CSOs have been prominent local security providers in the UK, Australia, and elsewhere for two decades. In the UK, CSOs and related neighbourhood policing emerged from reassurance policing that was partially influenced by earlier US ideas on community policing. Currently in the UK, austerity is challenging the continuation of these kinds of policing, and yet these models are influencing developments beyond its borders. Examining recent establishment of CSOs in cities in Western Canada, the chapter then engages in international comparative research at the frontier of community policing. It analyses freedom of information disclosures and policy documents to demonstrate that CSO establishment in Canada has not involved a straightforward transfer of criminal justice policy from the UK.
This chapter addresses National Capital Commission (NCC) conservation officers’ regulation of homeless people, many of them Indigenous people, in Canada’s capital city, Ottawa. The policing of NCC parks is organised by a logic of dispersal. Such policing aims to preserve an aesthetic for public consumption and ceremonial nationalism, entails specific temporalities, and is made possible through a policing and security network. Dispersal more accurately conceptualises the spatial regulation here compared with alternative concepts like banishment, and therefore supplements existing typologies of spatial regulation. The chapter then looks at these typologies for future research on urban policing and regulation and the notion of frontiers. There is a sense in which they reproduce the colonial dimension of the frontier in how they approach these peoples.
This chapter investigates uniformed patrols called ‘ambassadors’, who are increasingly providing security in the nooks and crannies of city centre cores across many countries. These programmes migrated from US cities like Baltimore and Philadelphia to cities in Canada, then to the UK cities, and far beyond, and are intimately connected with urban ‘revitalisation’ and mostly class-based gentrification strategies. Interviews with public police and ambassadors in three Canadian cities reveal that ambassador operations and practices are shaped and made possible by relations with police that entail exchanging knowledge for limited training and tacit tolerance. Ambassadors act as police ‘eyes and ears’ and govern ‘nuisance’, using indirect and unauthorised strategies. In these arrangements, ambassadors are not so much ‘steered’ by police as ‘anchored’, suggesting notions of ‘networked governance’.
This chapter assesses another new kind of policing and security agent — public corporate security personnel — with attention to the frontiers of security knowledge and credentialism. It considers the establishment of corporate security units in municipal and federal levels of government in Canada. Corporate security, operating in the private sphere, is now entering new and unexpected frontiers to become elements of policing and security networks. The chapter then focuses on how knowledge and technology from the American Society for Industrial Security (ASIS International) is transferred into Canadian levels of government and their newer corporate security units and operations as well as into the UK and Australia through some of its 240 chapters worldwide.
This chapter explores the longstanding but surprisingly neglected ‘user pays’ policing, as well as newer and proliferating police foundations in Canada and the US. Many police departments in North America and beyond now offer ‘user pays’ public policing. The premise of ‘user pays’, as its name suggests, is that the public should not pay for private use of the public police. Those who use their security services for private benefit should pay, and the more they use them, the more they should pay. In practice, this involves selling security services to individuals and organisations for street festivals, funeral escorts, concerts, special parades, and retail establishments, and sometimes directly to private security firms themselves. These arrangements always entail uniformed officers providing security to these ‘users’ via temporary assignment.
This concluding chapter identifies seven subthemes, derived from exploring policing and security frontiers, for future research and for criminology as a field of study. These include nuisance, aesthetics, public policy relations, the role of law, moving resources, oversight, and contestation. The chapter then advocates the adoption of this book’s themes for future research and thinking in criminology and suggests that greater attention be paid to forms of policing and security neglected due to methodological myopia and stagnation as well as to fixed disciplinary boundaries. If policing and security provision can usefully be conceived in terms of frontiers, then so too can criminological inquiry. Indeed, criminologists can open doors to new concepts, venture beyond disciplinary boundaries, and avoid methodological pitfalls on the way to discerning what is happening on these frontiers, discovering and advocating what forms of security, politics, and life are possible.