This chapter focuses on control of forced migration in relation to disease and pandemic control. While migrants have often been presented as bearers of disease, which has justified their exclusion, surveillance and enclosure in camps, it is in fact the much more affluent and mobile populations from the global North who have tended to spread disease across the world. The chapter demonstrates how this has been the case throughout history, and the deadly implications for refugees that it has given rise to. The aim is to highlight some of the ways in which the almost unfettered mobilities of the world’s wealthier inhabitants might in fact be dangerous (rather than benign, if not positive, as it is often portrayed); and to contrast that with the vast and expensive architecture of control erected to prevent or contain Third World mobilities. Recognizing these uneven geographies of fear and control, the chapter suggests the need for arguing for more just mobility regimes which can overcome the embedded racist logics which currently dominate.
Can the BME third sector be considered a distinctive sector in its own right? Contributing towards building a foundation of knowledge on the black minority ethnic (BME) third sector, this chapter offers an introductory resource on research in this field. The paper begins with discussion on the contested concept of a BME third sector (BME TS) and its ‘distinctiveness’ from the wider third sector. It highlights the importance of robust comparative analyses to identify the differences between subsectors, in order to examine the policy implications for these different organisations. The chapter provides brief overviews of material about different types of organisation that might constitute the BME TS. These include: refugee and asylum seeker organisations (RCOs), faith based organisations, diasporic immigrant community organisations, and Black community organisations. In closing, the paper identifies gaps in the current research base that will be of interest to the wider research community.
This powerful book explicates the many ways in which colonial encounters continue to shape forced migration, ever evolving with times and various geographical contexts.
Bringing historians, political scientists, sociologists, anthropologists, and criminologists together, the book presents examples of forced migration events and politics ranging from the 18th century to the practices and geopolitics in the present day. These case studies across Europe, Africa, North America, Asia and South America are then put in dialogue with each other to propose new theoretical and real-world agendas for the field.
As the pervasive legacies of colonialism continue to shape global politics, this unprecedented book moves beyond critique, ahistoricity and Eurocentrism in refugee and forced migration studies and establishes postcoloniality and forced migration as an important field of migration research.
In this concluding chapter we draw together insights from the whole collection. We identify seven cross cutting themes across the chapters: the enduring power of ideas of race and racial hierarchy in responses to forced migration; postcolonial states managing mobile populations in their own interests; states seeking to spatially organize populations along modern/colonial lines; the role of private companies and non-state actors; the role of technologies for surveillance, categorization, and control; and finally the fraught politics of sanctuary and hospitality. Drawing on these contributions as well as taking a step back, our final words sketch out a research agenda to further explore what postcolonial perspectives can bring to forced migration and refugee scholarship, an agenda that seeks to consolidate the emerging literature on postcolonial approaches to forced migration so that its insights come to inform critical migration studies more broadly.
This introductory chapter explains how the book draws on postcolonial and decoloniality studies to challenge exceptionalist narratives and Eurocentric epistemologies that underly the fields of refugee and forced migration studies. Scholarship from disciplines such as international relations, sociology, criminology, and political science often reveals a curious silence on the continuities of colonialism and historical legacies that inform contemporary refugee phenomena. Postcolonial and decolonial critiques, however, offer ways to move beyond certain dominating analytics of Western thinking and geographies about displacement – the nation-state, border control and humanitarianism. This chapter surveys several productive critiques from postcolonial scholarly engagement with the field of refugee and forced migration policy. Using postcolonial theoretical approaches, the volume as a whole interrogates how the control, securitization, policing and surveillance of mobility follows racialized and geopolitical patterns with colonial and historical roots. Contributors represent a variety of disciplines and employ a creative array of methodological and theoretical tools. Their work requires careful assemblage of social and political theory, historical archival research, and careful analysis to link those histories to the present. The Introduction ends with a brief synopsis of each of the book’s chapters.