The rise of Far Right populism poses major challenges for communities, exacerbating divisions, hate speech and hate crime. This book shows how communities and social justice movements can effectively tackle these issues, working together to mitigate their underlying causes and more immediate manifestations.
Showing that community-based learning is integral to the development of strategies to promote more hopeful rather than more hateful futures, Mayo demonstrates how, through popular education and participatory action research, communities can develop their own understandings of their problems. Using case studies that illustrate education approaches in practice, she shows how communities can engineer democratic forms of social change.
Issues of displacement and dispossession have become defining characteristics of a globalised 21st century. People are moving within and across national borders, whether displaced, relocated or moving in search of better livelihoods.
This book brings theoretical understandings of migration and displacement together with empirical illustrations of the creative, cultural ways in which communities reflect upon their experiences of change, and how they respond, including through poetry and story-telling, photography and other art forms, exploring the scope for building communities of solidarity and social justice.
The concluding chapters identify potential implications for policy and professional practice to promote communities of solidarity, addressing the structural causes of widening inequalities, taking account of different interests, including those related to social class, gender, ethnicity, age, ability and faith.
This book, the second title in the Rethinking Community Development series, starts from concern about increasing inequality worldwide and the re-emergence of community development in public policy debates.
It argues for the centrality of class analysis and its associated divisions of power to any discussion of the potential benefits of community development. It proposes that, without such an analysis, community development can simply mask the underlying causes of structural inequality. It may even exacerbate divisions between groups competing for dwindling public resources in the context of neoliberal globalisation.
Reflecting on their own contexts, a wide range of contributors from across the global north and south explore how an understanding of social class can offer ways forward in the face of increasing social polarisation. The book considers class as a dynamic and contested concept and examines its application in policies and practices past and present. These include local/global and rural/urban alliances, community organising, ecology, gender and education.
This chapter focuses on varying approaches to the values, principles and practices of learning for active citizenship and social change. Government projects in UK have included active learning to promote active citizenship, such as the Take Part programmes, for example. These programmes built on the values, principles and approaches of civil society initiatives, including the experiences of the Workers Educational Association. The chapter concludes with examples of the application of values and principles via the arts, both in Britain and internationally.
Communities are diverse with their own specific histories and cultures. And so are social movements. Individuals and groups have differing, and sometimes conflicting, interests and concerns, including differences that relate to their class, race, ethnicity, gender, disability, age and/ or faith. These differences need to be understood- and taken into account- as the basis for building mutual trust. This chapter starts by exploring ways of sharing learning about differences and diversities within communities and social movements. This sets the framework for considering examples of campaigns which have succeeded in developing such shared understandings across differences, from environmental movements in Italy to housing justice movements in contemporary Britain.
Moving forward, this chapter explores ways of sharing learning, as the basis for building solidarity across time and space. The first example comes from India, as workers and communities shared their research on industrial malpractices, leading to the human and environmental disaster, when more than 40 tons of methyl isocyanate gas from a pesticide plant in Bhopal, India. Research findings and experiences were shared across the globe, supporting Indian communities in their struggles for justice and a safer environment. The second example comes from London’s Docklands where communities and local workforces shared their learning over the years, developing the case for alternative approaches to planning, sharing ideas about redevelopment to meet people’s needs rather than to promote private profitability.
This chapter starts by exploring different approaches to the notion of power. This sets the context for considering the tools that communities and social movements can apply, in order to understand power. Who has the power to make a difference in their particular situations? And how can the powerful be influenced – and where necessary challenged – most effectively? The chapter explores different analytical tools that can be used by communities, both locally and in international development contexts. The final section provides examples of power analysis in practice, providing guidance for developing strategies to challenge the Far Right in Britain, in recent times.
Community-university partnerships can lead to the co-production of really useful knowledge, enabling communities to research their own issues and concerns. As a result, communities and social movements can develop more effective strategies, in response. Such partnerships have significant potential, but only if they are based upon mutual understanding and trust. There are pressures on universities in the current policy context, impacting on the scope for developing collaborative rather than more competitive ways of working, respecting communities’ priorities and time constraints. Despite these pressures though, the chapter provides examples of mutually beneficial partnerships, including partnerships developing participatory research via community arts and cultural initiatives.
The Far Right has made a play of appealing to people’s emotions, focusing on people’s anxieties and fears, along with widespread feelings of envy and resentment. Psycho-social approaches can provide ways of understanding the roots of these emotions - and how to work with them - unpacking people’s hostilities towards ‘the other’ as the basis for building more hopeful, rather than more hateful, futures. Having summarised the findings from psycho-social studies the chapter concludes with some examples where communities and social movements have been working with emotions more hopefully, including via strategies to tackle racism in football.
The conclusions argue for the continuing relevance of the theoretical contributions of Marx and Freire. Rather than providing blueprints for the future, however, their analyses provide the basis for addressing the tensions and dilemmas that continue to face popular educators , working to develop what Freire has termed ‘pedagogies of hope’, supporting movements for justice, solidarity and social transformation.