Search Results

You are looking at 1 - 4 of 4 items for

  • Author or Editor: Martine S.B. Lie x
Clear All Modify Search

Norwegian grey wolves and brown bears are endangered and critically endangered, respectively, in Norway. Although they are protected by the Bern Convention, which Norway ratified in 1986, they are victims of both legal and illegal theriocides (killings of animals by humans), through practices including illegal hunts, licensed hunts and killings in defence of humans or their animals. This chapter compares the legal and illegal predator hunts, based on analysis of verdicts from penal cases on illegal theriocides, and guidelines for legal hunts. Several similarities between the legal and illegal hunts are identified, which raises the question of whether the legal hunts are more justified than the illegal hunts from a species justice perspective – that is, whether they cause the victims less suffering.

Restricted access

This book addresses one of today’s most urgent issues: the loss of wildlife and habitat, which together constitute an ecological crisis. Combining studies from different disciplines such as law, political science and criminology with a focus on animal rights, the chapters explore the successes and failures of the international wildlife conservation and trade treaties, CITES and the BERN Convention.

While these conventions have played a crucial role in protecting endangered species from trade and in the rewilding of European large carnivores, the case studies in this book demonstrate huge variations in their implementation and enforcement across Europe. In conclusion, the book advocates for a non-anthropocentric policy approach to strengthen wildlife conservation in Europe.

Restricted access

This chapter gives a brief introduction to International Environmental Law, specifically the CITES and Bern conventions, green criminology and the research project of which this book is part. An important issue for the CRIMEANTHROP project was animal rights that generally are absent in nature conventions, since ‘wildlife’ is accorded value first when a species has become endangered and, even under such circumstances, the protection accorded to individuals is minimal. Generally, freeborn animals (wildlife) are regarded as ‘nature’ rather than sentient individuals with interests. Human interest, whether in meat production or other objectification of animals as products, is constantly prioritized. Together, the contributions to this book provide a broad picture of the effects, or lack of effects, of international nature conservation conventions in protecting wildlife from harms and premature deaths caused by human action.

Full Access

The final chapter sums up the findings of the book. The contributions illustrate that the ways in which the conventions are implemented and enforced vary between countries. For example, in Spain animals who are confiscated as a measure to enforce CITES are not euthanized, as they are in Norway. Moreover, the protection that is accorded wildlife in Europe appears to be stronger in countries that are members of the European Union, through the Habitat Directive, than the protection that is offered through the Bern Convention, since the Habitats Directive has a more powerful enforcement apparatus. While all the time more research confirms the capacities of non-human animals, the value that is accorded to individual non-human animals and their interests still lags significantly behind. Although there are provisions in regards to animal welfare in CITES, and although wildlife is accorded intrinsic value in the Bern Convention’s preamble, the basis of these conventions is in both cases anthropocentric.

Restricted access