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  • Author or Editor: Roxana Pessoa Cavalcanti x
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The chapter introduces the volume, sketches the broad outlines of the 16 substantive chapters which follow and sets out the issues and concerns which underpin the approach taken by the collection. The discussion engages, albeit briefly, with the work of a range of Southern and postcolonial commentators who have drawn attention to Southern differences and the postcolonial intersectionalities of race, gender and class. The chapter also introduces the notion of ‘boomerang’ (or ‘blowback’) effects as violence and forms of criminalization and securitization, which were first deployed by imperial nations across their empires, find their way back home and into in the modern governance systems of Northern neoliberal societies. At the same time, processes of transnational governance, even disarmament, peace and human rights initiatives, replicate the many of imperial relations they were meant to ameliorate or replace.

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Post-colonial legacies continue to impact upon the Global South and this edited collection examines their influence on systems of policing, security management and social ordering. Expanding the Southern Criminology agenda, the book critically examines social harms, violence and war crimes, human rights abuses, environmental degradation and the criminalisation of protest.

The book asks how current states of policing came about, their consequences and whose interests they continue to serve through vivid international case studies, including prison struggles in Latin America and the misuse of military force. Challenging current criminological thinking on the Global South, the book considers how police and state overreach can undermine security and perpetuate racism and social conflict.

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Across 18 specially commissioned chapters this book draws together several emerging academic, theoretical and research-inspired concerns relating to ‘Southern perspectives’ in criminology and existing scholarship on colonialism and the decolonization of the criminological imagination. There are chapters on Southern and imperial legacies regarding policing, criminal justice and the law, penal systems and the abuse of human rights. These issues are discussed in relation to both new and old issues regarding racism, the ‘weaponization’ of the South, the neoliberal world order, criminalization processes and state violence, the suppression of political protest and exploitative economic relations contributing to environmental degradation and human insecurity. The chapters are written by both experienced and early career scholars working around the world including South and Central America and the Caribbean, Asia and Australasia. Case studies and materials covered include, police violence in South Africa, the privatization of military and security forces, war crimes in Iraq and Afghanistan, the criminalization of environmental protest in South America, the policing of Black music and culture, riots and authority in Brazilian prisons, the negotiation of order and safety in poor communities and the emergence of a postcolonial feminist agenda for human rights.

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Across 18 specially commissioned chapters this book draws together several emerging academic, theoretical and research-inspired concerns relating to ‘Southern perspectives’ in criminology and existing scholarship on colonialism and the decolonization of the criminological imagination. There are chapters on Southern and imperial legacies regarding policing, criminal justice and the law, penal systems and the abuse of human rights. These issues are discussed in relation to both new and old issues regarding racism, the ‘weaponization’ of the South, the neoliberal world order, criminalization processes and state violence, the suppression of political protest and exploitative economic relations contributing to environmental degradation and human insecurity. The chapters are written by both experienced and early career scholars working around the world including South and Central America and the Caribbean, Asia and Australasia. Case studies and materials covered include, police violence in South Africa, the privatization of military and security forces, war crimes in Iraq and Afghanistan, the criminalization of environmental protest in South America, the policing of Black music and culture, riots and authority in Brazilian prisons, the negotiation of order and safety in poor communities and the emergence of a postcolonial feminist agenda for human rights.

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Across 18 specially commissioned chapters this book draws together several emerging academic, theoretical and research-inspired concerns relating to ‘Southern perspectives’ in criminology and existing scholarship on colonialism and the decolonization of the criminological imagination. There are chapters on Southern and imperial legacies regarding policing, criminal justice and the law, penal systems and the abuse of human rights. These issues are discussed in relation to both new and old issues regarding racism, the ‘weaponization’ of the South, the neoliberal world order, criminalization processes and state violence, the suppression of political protest and exploitative economic relations contributing to environmental degradation and human insecurity. The chapters are written by both experienced and early career scholars working around the world including South and Central America and the Caribbean, Asia and Australasia. Case studies and materials covered include, police violence in South Africa, the privatization of military and security forces, war crimes in Iraq and Afghanistan, the criminalization of environmental protest in South America, the policing of Black music and culture, riots and authority in Brazilian prisons, the negotiation of order and safety in poor communities and the emergence of a postcolonial feminist agenda for human rights.

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Across 18 specially commissioned chapters this book draws together several emerging academic, theoretical and research-inspired concerns relating to ‘Southern perspectives’ in criminology and existing scholarship on colonialism and the decolonization of the criminological imagination. There are chapters on Southern and imperial legacies regarding policing, criminal justice and the law, penal systems and the abuse of human rights. These issues are discussed in relation to both new and old issues regarding racism, the ‘weaponization’ of the South, the neoliberal world order, criminalization processes and state violence, the suppression of political protest and exploitative economic relations contributing to environmental degradation and human insecurity. The chapters are written by both experienced and early career scholars working around the world including South and Central America and the Caribbean, Asia and Australasia. Case studies and materials covered include, police violence in South Africa, the privatization of military and security forces, war crimes in Iraq and Afghanistan, the criminalization of environmental protest in South America, the policing of Black music and culture, riots and authority in Brazilian prisons, the negotiation of order and safety in poor communities and the emergence of a postcolonial feminist agenda for human rights.

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The criminalization of activists and social movements poses concrete challenges to the exercise of democratic rights and the manifestation of demands for social justice. This chapter aims to engage with a number of research questions relating to the forms of contemporary criminalization of activists in Latin America. Utilizing findings from qualitative research in Mexico, Brazil and Ecuador, the chapter explores how legislation and the criminal justice system have been used to quash dissent and criminalize activists. In particular, stigmatizing discourses and terminology referring to criminals, terrorists and communists have been used to delegitimize activists and justify the repression of social movements and protests. Paradoxically, there has also been an expansion of the number and range of protagonists responding to and resisting political turmoil. This chapter draws lessons from these new developments to expand our understanding of the structural and historical relationships between the state and civil society in postcolonial contexts.

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This final chapter, a brief conclusion, draws together the core themes of the book, reiterating the main themes and reinforcing the ways in which the separate chapters contribute to the overriding themes of the work. The conclusion closes by suggesting a number of ‘pathways for future research’.

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In recent years, Brazil has experienced rising violence against activists and increasing deforestation levels in the Amazon. The processes leading to those events are not new. However, various discourses and events have intensified and underpinned extractive interests during Bolsonaro’s government. Hence, this article analyses the relationship between the State and activists in the Brazilian Amazon region between 2019 and 2022. It focuses on three regional paradigmatic case studies: (1) the ongoing gold miners’ (garimpeiros) invasion of the Yanomami territory; (2) the arrest of four environmentalists accused of setting fire to the forest in 2019; and (3) the murder of the journalist Dominic Phillips and the Indigenist Bruno Pereira in 2022. The case studies utilise publicly available data from reports, interviews, press releases and newspaper articles. Our main objective is to provide an overview of the characteristics of an increasingly antagonistic relationship between activists and the State. Drawing on those cases, the article builds on mobilisation theories, particularly Political Process Theories. Our central argument is that there are evident differences in the forms of repression activists face during far-right governments. This context shapes activism distinctively in the Amazonian region because violence routinely challenges social and environmental justice activism. Moreover, the current violence points to broader social questions and struggles between activists and agents of repression.

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