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Authors: Sarah Smith and Sarah Smith

The United Kingdom (UK) government has stated its desire to increase levels of giving, including money donations. This paper assesses the prospects for achieving this goal. It discusses potential policy tools, including tax incentives as well as insights from ‘behavioural economics’.

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Authors: Katie Smith and Sarah Davidge

COVID-19 quickly changed the context of domestic abuse in England. Within weeks of the first COVID-19 related death, the country was in lockdown. A quick response was essential for understanding the needs of survivors. With limited time to establish new data collection mechanisms, the role of administrative data was central in shaping the response by the Women’s Aid Federation of England. This article explores the opportunities and challenges of using administrative data to understand and respond to the impact of COVID-19 on survivors of domestic abuse in England, using analysis by Women’s Aid of administrative data as a case study. The article discusses the challenges, such as the complexity of analysing a longitudinal administrative dataset, and the need for increased skills and capacity within the NGO research environment. We also reflect on ethical considerations in light of the context of frontline workers responding to the pandemic, the opportunities for collaboration with other sector partners and academics and the benefits of being able to undertake reactive analysis to inform policy. The article concludes that our access to administrative data bolstered our ability to respond expediently to the pandemic, and achieve the long-term benefits of the partnerships that we built during this time.

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This article examines the incorporation of intersectional perspectives – using intersectionality as theory and method – into the Women, Peace and Security agenda. We conduct a content analysis of the ten Women, Peace and Security resolutions and 98 current Women, Peace and Security national action plans. The analysis shows that intersectionality has been integrated into the Women, Peace and Security agenda to only a limited extent, despite more recent trends towards referencing the term in policy documents. Even where intersectionality or intersectional concerns are referenced, these tend to reinforce hegemonic categorisations based on sex difference. We therefore argue that policy and practice ought to incorporate intersectionality in its view of both power and identities, as well as in its organising frameworks, and thereby take into consideration how intersecting systems of power affect lived experiences for groups and individuals, their access to justice, and their ability to exercise agency.

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This chapter arose from conversations between two Romani women activists working with young people (Daróczi and Smith) and a non-Romani woman researcher (Cemlyn). It considers lessons for transformative change from empowerment work with young Roma. Daróczi and Smith led the direction through their knowledge, ideas and direct experience, and Cemlyn framed the content. Broader personal reflections are indicated through direct quotations from Daróczi and Smith. We outline four underpinning approaches: terminological issues relating to the groups we focus on; discrimination and inequality affecting Romani young people; the conceptual framework informing the discussion; and the current policy framework for empowerment work by and with Romani youth. We describe selected areas of work in national and international contexts through the organizations with which Daróczi and Smith are involved. We then analyse and reflect on these currents and contexts of activism under themes of: empowerment; identity and diversity in Romani movements; Roma/non-Roma solidarity; and policy implications. The conclusion focuses on new and inspirational directions for Romani young people’s activism. We take a cross-national perspective through the work of a European organization, Phiren Amenca, working in ten countries, and a group of UK organizations, including Travellers’ Times (TT) youth section and Roma Rights Defenders. The umbrella term ‘Roma’ has increasingly been used by the European Commission and other institutions to include groups in both Eastern and Western Europe. Simhandl (2006) refers to inherent silences and unspoken assumptions about boundaries around essentialist categories concerning these groups in European Union (EU) political discourse. There are numerous groups from Western Europe to the Balkans who do not identify as ‘Roma’; however, as an endonym, it has been widely adopted (see Chapter One).

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Hager and Brudney (2004, 2005) developed a Net Benefits Index (NBI) to measure the performance of volunteer programmes. Their benchmarking tool scores an organisation's performance against six specific benefits and eight recognised challenges that organisations face in recruiting and managing volunteers. This article extends the NBI by demonstrating its use as an internal programme evaluation tool within two health non-profit organisations. By surveying all staff and volunteers (rather than relying on the organisational response from a single individual), the tool provides valuable insights into volunteer and staff attitudes about the volunteer programme. In addition to critiquing the NBI, this article highlights reasons for divergent scores between volunteers and staff and the improvements that can be made to a volunteer programme's effectiveness as a result of measurement.

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“Very strong women – wherever you look there has been a strong woman.”

This chapter outlines the work of key women activists within the National Federation of Gypsy Liaison Groups (NFGLG) who are working to support their communities locally and nationally to gain stable places to live and to promote improved understanding and relationships between the settled and Gypsy/Traveller communities. A major aspect of their work involves advocating for planning permission for families, as well as educating officials and the public about Gypsies’ and Travellers’ culture, lives and needs, and commemorating Gypsy history.

Through reflections on their experiences, underpinned by feminist community work theory and insights from other theory and research, the chapter explores the gender dimensions of activism for Gypsy and Traveller women, the deep roots in their communities that generate both strengths and barriers and the theoretical developments their practice suggests. It reflects a partnership between activism and research in being co-written by Gypsy activists and a non-Gypsy researcher who had the privilege of joining these discussions. The authors also acknowledge the inspiring contribution of other women, some of whose work is reflected in other chapters or referred to below.

After outlining a feminist perspective on community development and the experience of gender within Gypsy and Traveller communities, the chapter considers the development of Gypsy and Traveller women’s activism, before focusing on the experience of NFGLG activists. It concludes by examining some of the main differences from and parallels with ‘mainstream’ feminist community action, reflecting minority group experiences.

Gypsy and Traveller women, like many other women who are active on behalf of their communities, may not identify as ‘feminist’.

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Involving children and young people in NHS services has become an imperative for Hospital Trusts and given momentum by the Patient and Public Involvement (PPI) initiative and organisations such as National Institute for Health Research (NIHR) INVOLVE. An overriding concern with attempts to ‘involve’ children and young people in health settings has been on seeking their views or advice on matters defined by health professionals and researchers. Yet with a growing ethos towards shared decision-making, co-production, and developments to the theory and practice of children’s participation (Banks et al, 2018; Tisdall, 2013; Percy-Smith, 2018), there is a shift towards more active approaches to children’s participation in healthcare settings that recognise the importance of involving children and young people in all phases of the project cycle and in a wider range of contexts. This chapter draws on a collaborative action inquiry project with a UK NHS Hospital Trust to share the experience of developing meaningful and effective opportunities for involving children and young people across the Trust. Different strategies adopted, as well as some of the issues and challenges faced, will be discussed. In particular, the chapter will critically reflect on the significance of participation as patient experience and the challenges of integrating children’s participation into organisational cultures and systems. Emphasis is placed on the need for creativity and flexibility in work with children, the critical role of adults as advocates and the importance of integrating a learning ethos into systems and practices across the Trust.

Developing the participation of children and young people in healthcare settings has been slower than in many other sectors such as schools and broader contexts of local governance in local authorities (ECORYS, 2015), in spite of the PPI initiative.

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In this chapter, we suggest that effective behaviour change interventions depend on an understanding of the mechanisms underpinning change, change techniques, how to design interventions, and how to conduct robust evaluations. We describe how to systematically develop evidence-based behaviour change interventions using the Intervention Mapping approach, explain the six design stages, and consider practical issues involved. We highlight the importance of considering the role of both reflective and automatic processes during intervention design, and stress that successful implementation of interventions requires collaboration between developers and stakeholders, and consideration of the context, environment and resources available. In the final section of the chapter, we discuss the need to subject all interventions to rigorous evaluations of both outcomes and processes. We close the chapter with a series of succinct recommendations.

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