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Euro-Western and Indigenous perspectives
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Research ethics and integrity are growing in importance as academics face increasing pressure to win grants and publish, and universities promote themselves in the competitive HE market. Research Ethics in the Real World is the first book to highlight the links between research ethics and individual, social, professional, institutional, and political ethics. Drawing on Indigenous and Euro-Western research traditions, Helen Kara considers all stages of the research process, from the formulation of a research question to aftercare for participants, data and findings. She argues that knowledge of both ethical approaches is helpful for researchers working in either paradigm.

Students, academics, and research ethics experts from around the world contribute real-world perspectives on navigating and managing ethics in practice. Research Ethics in the Real World provides guidance for quantitative, qualitative, and mixed-methods researchers from all disciplines about how to act ethically throughout your research work. This book is invaluable in supporting teachers of research ethics to design and deliver effective courses.

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Introduction There has been much attention given to the relationship between early life socio-economic disadvantage and poorer health outcomes and disability in population health research. This association has been demonstrated across various objective and subjective measures, in both adults and children ( Nikiéma et al, 2012 ; Nobles et al, 2013 ; Darin-Mattsson et al, 2017 ; Doebler and Glasgow, 2017 ; Kivimäki et al, 2020 ). It is only recently that researchers have begun to focus on the impact on adolescent health, recognising the long

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Chapter 8 for more on friendship in research.) Aftercare is potentially a particular issue for researchers working with more vulnerable participants, such as those with physical or learning disabilities 153 Ethical aftercare or mental health problems. Writing of mental health service users and their involvement in research, Hamilton (2009: 221) says: "Involvement can be a very significant experience for service users and relationships with others in the team can become very important to user researchers. Researchers should be careful that service users are not

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used in the service of evaluation, and many theoretical stances too. The ethical aspects of method that are relevant in research more widely are also relevant in evaluation research. However, there is one aspect of method that features more strongly in Euro-Western evaluation research than in other types of Euro-Western research (although it may also appear there), and that is stakeholder involvement. Evaluation research often focuses on marginalised groups: those with disabilities, or living in poverty, or in poor health, or with low levels of educational

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exploiting trusting participants (Tindana, Kass and Akweongo, 2006: 7). There are differences between Euro-Western countries in how they approach research governance, with some taking a more relaxed approach than others. For example, Denmark decided in the mid-1990s that formal ethical approval was unnecessary for social science research (Israel, 2015: 60). At the other end of the spectrum, in some countries formal ethical approval is mandated by law. For example, in New Zealand it is a legal requirement for health and disability research, and for research conducted

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professional relationships that are harmonious enough, yet there is a sizeable minority of people who do not experience relational well-being at work. Bullying and harassment are, sadly, prevalent in universities around the world, affecting up to 25% of university staff (Lipsett, 2005). While anyone can become a victim of bullying, you are more likely to be a victim if you are from a minority ethnic background, have a disability, or are from the LGBTI+ community (Boynton, 2017: 183). For example, Róisin Ryan-Flood is an openly lesbian researcher who studies queer

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’s something I really focus on when I’m reviewing applications: who’s included, who’s excluded? Most annoying when it goes 18–65, as if people over 65 have nothing to contribute! I really advocate more imaginative and creative thinking about research methodologies that are relevant and appropriate to the group. Ways to get data that are not just standard. I think technologies are making it more and more possible; more people are using mobile phone technology and other things to really engage with e.g. young people or people with disabilities who are normally seen as

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). 104 Research ethics in the real world There is a convention in Euro-Western research that if someone is deemed incapable of giving informed consent to participate, say on the grounds of learning disability or youth, then consent may be sought from their carer or parent acting on their behalf. However, this assumes that the carer or parent is more able than the potential participant, which may not be the case, for example, if the carer or parent experiences poor mental health or addiction to alcohol or drugs (Bray, 2014: 32). “We might have this lovely

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, 2013 ; Nicolaisen and Thorsen, 2014 ; Durcan and Bell, 2015 ; Griffiths, 2017 ; ONS, 2018a ), as is disability. Yet disability is itself strongly associated with socio-economic disadvantage ( Priestley, 2001 ; Jenkins and Rigg, 2004 ; Maroto et al, 2019 ); and it can be a consequence as well as a driver of reduced social contacts ( Lund et al, 2010 ). Much work on social support in general and on the influence of social relationships on (disabled) people’s outcomes focuses on later life ( Berkman, 2000 ; Dykstra, 2009 ; Durcan and Bell, 2015 ; Burholt et al

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Introduction Visual impairment is one of the most common disabilities among older adults ( Loh and Ogle, 2004 ; Giloyan et al. 2015 ; Rafaely et al. 2018 ). About 65% of the visually impaired and 82% of the blind people worldwide are those aged 50 and older ( World Health Organization, 2012 ). In fact, most of the major eye diseases are age-related and the prevalence of these vision-threatening conditions increase considerably after age 75 ( Chader and Taylor, 2013 ). A distinguished body of research has illuminated the health risks associated with age

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