The ‘smart city’ is often promoted as a technology-driven solution to complex urban issues. While commentators are increasingly critical of techno-optimistic narratives, the political imagination is dominated by claims that technical solutions can be uniformly applied to intractable problems.
This book provides a much-needed alternative view, exploring how ‘home-grown’ digital disruption, driven and initiated by local actors, upends the mainstream corporate narrative.
Drawing on original research conducted in a range of urban African settings, Odendaal shows how these initiatives can lead to meaningful change.
This is a valuable resource for scholars working in the intersection of science and technology studies, urban and economic geography and sociology.
of 1918 (codifies the rights of federal employees to join labor unions and bargain collectively) 3. Fair Labor Standards Act of 1938 (deals with the minimum wage and mandatory overtime for employees who work more than 40 hours a week) 4. Americans ivith Disabilities Act of 1990 (prohibits workplace discrimination against disabled people) 5. Occupational Safety and Health Act of 1910 (sets safety regulations for workplaces) 6. Age Discrimination and Employment Act of 1961 (prohibits workplace discrimination against people ages 40 and over) 7. Worker
familiari) or tax based (detrazioni) paid to workers for their spouse and children; - unemployment transfers, divided in 'special lay-off pay fund' (Cassa In- tegrazione Guadagni) called CIG, and mobility allowance, which may be requested by firms with more than 10 employees on behalf of their workers instead of laying workers off, and the ordinary individual un- employment benefit which is very low; - pensions, with the exception of the 'basic non contributory pensions', are strictly work-based. They are paid either to people who cannot work (disability pensions
% or more persons with a disability. 2 Adam J. Hoffer and Russell S. Sobel 186 State Preference policy Empirical category Arizona Small Business preference: $1,000 – $25,000 0 Arkansas A 15% preference against out-of-state prison industry bids. 0 California 5% for small business (goods, services, construction and IT) and non-small business subcontractors. The maximum preference is $50,000 and when combined with other preferences, the preference total cannot exceed $100,000. Target Area Contract Preference Act (TACPA) (applies to goods and IT only): 5% of the
. The subcommittee on social security has jurisdiction over retirement, survivors, and disability programs as well as employment taxes. Finally, there is also the subcommittee on trade, which has jurisdiction over tariff and import fee structure, including classification, valuation of, and special rules applying to imports and exports. In addition to these specific subcommittees, there are also two subcommittees that are more general. The subcommittee on select revenue matters has jurisdiction over things that the Chairman of the committee decides to give them
- tract from behind a veil of ignorance, where people have no knowledge of their own characteristics, such as race, gender, wealth, intelligence, and other abilities (or disabilities). Buchanan envisions a hypothetical renegotiation of the social contract from a position of anarchy, with the idea that current in- 25 For a dissenting view, see Yeager . While the social contract theory suggests implicit rather than actual agreement with a social contract, Berman  notes that when medieval towns were formed from around 1050-1150, it was common for all
talents and disabilities (the so-called 'envy test', combined with a collective obliga- tion to compensate for natural inequalities, in Dworkin). Nevertheless, such conceptual refinements remain firmly entrenched inside the logical frame- work of a social justice conceived in terms of distributive equality. Egalitar- ian conceptions of social justice are in principle perfectly defensible both in logic and in practice. But this is not my point. My point is that to regard the problem of social justice conceived in terms of distributive equality, howev- er defined, as
theories of other historical, political, and economic scientists. Even when they do mention alternative theories—as, for example, in their wise rejection of the ever-popular Eurocentrism of Europe’s “Judeo-Christian culture, its unique geography, its European values” (p 198)—they do not pause to weigh and consider it in detail. Their serial empiricist monologue has disabilities as science. It tends to ex cathedra pronouncements, evading the scientist’s responsibility to weigh and consider. In history, the charming books by the French historian Fernand Braudel were
'social justice'. For detailed refutations of this non-concept, see in particular von Mises [(1949) 1998, pp. 849-850] and von Hayek [1984, pp. 62-113]. 48 Pierre Bessard charitable giving cannot be based on coercion; it must be voluntary and sub- sidiary, grounded on the principle of encouraging self-help, self-reliance, and independence. Moreover, current government monopolies all too often conceal that the market and the nonprofit social sector can provide real and affordable alternatives against the risks of illness, accidents, disability, and un- employment
on family allowance is higher. Table 3 also points to the fact that - except for the United Kingdom - the most common system of allowances provides for a fairly steady increase for each additional child in a family. However, in some cases, there is no increase after a certain number of children. In the case of Denmark, Austria and the Netherlands, allowances do not change ac- cording to the number of children, but according to their age. In Spain, in case of a permanent disability, the allowance provided is larger for older chil- dren. Furthermore, in order