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Mobility, Migration and the COVID-19 Pandemic

This book looks at the changes that have taken place in the wake of the COVID-19 pandemic, following the lockdown of societies and imposition of border controls in an attempt to limit the spread of the virus.

Using empirical evidence from Portugal, a geopolitically important point of intersection within Europe and between Global South and Global North, the book examines consequences of the apparent end of mobility expansionism, developing a refreshing theoretical concept of ‘immobility turn.’

Focusing on the tourist industry, universities hosting international students and migration agencies, the book offers invaluable insights about how the pandemic affected institutions and individuals’ lives, informing policy-making processes on a global level.

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A Critical History

Evan Easton-Calabria’s critical history of refugee self-reliance assistance brings new dimensions to refugee and international development studies.

The promotion of refugee self-reliance is evident today, yet its history remains largely unexplored, with good practices and longstanding issues often missed. Through archival and contemporary evidence, this book documents a century of little-known efforts to foster refugee self-reliance, including the economic, political, and social motives driving this assistance.

With five case studies from Greece, Tanzania, Pakistan, Uganda, and Egypt, the book tracks refugee self-reliance as a malleable concept used to pursue ulterior interests. It reshapes understandings of refugee self-reliance and delivers important messages for contemporary policymaking.

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due to disability, lack of assets, or other life circumstances illustrates that the right to work must be accompanied by the right not to work. This focus necessitates a decriminalizing of such situations, in part through a broader discursive shift that recognizes that vulnerability is not a problem to be fixed through self-reliance, and that resilience and vulnerability indeed often exist alongside each other. 23 Practically, taking the right not to work seriously means in practice ongoing commitments to incorporate refugees into national social protection

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to disability, discrimination, or other circumstances, will likely never be able to be financially independent, 72 this is rarely broached in documents at the time. The concept of refugee self-reliance has also remained explicitly linked to aid reduction, as we saw in the case of Afghan refugees toward the end of the Cold War. In the 2011 UNHCR operational guidelines, for instance, staff were reminded that any cash or food assistance should ‘be short-term and conditional and gradually lead to self-reliance activities’. 73 Ensconced in this rhetoric is an

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for a variety of community perspectives to feed into decision making, with an emphasis on the participation of groups that are vulnerable to both climate impacts and to the impacts of climate policies themselves. This will require, as a minimum, vulnerability, and risk assessments to be conducted for communities across the city to assess the projected impacts, feeding in the lived experiences of individuals from these groups. Civil society groups in Bristol, including the Black and Green Ambassadors and the Bristol Disability Equality Forum, are already working to

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, Cambridge : Open Book Publishers . Lankester , E.R. ( 1880 ) Degeneration: A Chapter in Darwinism , London : Macmillan . Marttinen , T.L. ( 2022 ) Eugenics, admixture, and multiculturalism in Twentieth-century northern Sweden: contesting disability and Sámi genocide , Journal of Critical Mixed Race Studies , 1 ( 2 ): 233 – 61 . doi: 10.5070/C81258341 McLaren , A. ( 1990 ) Our Own Master Race: Eugenics in Canada, 1885–1945 , Oxford : Oxford University Press . Merivirta , R. , Koivunen , L. and Särkkä , T. (eds) ( 2021 ) Finnish Colonial

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