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populations in the UK, having high rates of unemployment, social deprivation and low rates of education (Brice, 2008; Alexander et al, 2010). This group also has poorer self-reported and measured health status indicated by higher rates of disability, centralised obesity and chronic diseases such as type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease (Sproston and Mindell, 2006). Older Bangladeshi women are particularly affected as they play a lead role in caretaking for multiple generations within relatively large extended families, and many struggle to cope with the complex

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77 FIVE Discrimination and disadvantage in local labour markets: issues affecting Black and minority ethnic women Sue Yeandle and Lisa Buckner introduction This chapter considers the labour market situation and labour force participation of ethnic minority women, focusing on three topics: the local labour market situation, in two locations, of Indian women, numerically one of the most important minorities in the English labour market; the position of two much smaller ethnic minority groups (Pakistani and Bangladeshi women), again in two specific local

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income generating labour in various ways. The chapter shows how this is often experienced through caring intra-households relations that are encouraging both men and women to stretch social norms to fit personal circumstances and needs. Overall it is argued that the issue of women’s participation in the labour market is far more dynamic and diverse than wider statistical analyses have been able to capture. Within both India and Bangladesh, women have the right to work. Both the Indian and Bangladeshi government legally guarantee women equality through their

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67 Journal of Gender-Based Violence • vol 3 • no 1 • 67–82 • © Centre for Gender and Violence Research 2019 University of Bristol 2019 • Print ISSN 2398-6808 • Online ISSN 2398-6816 https://doi.org/10.1332/239868019X15507503984791 Accepted for publication 29 January 2019 • First published online 08 March 2019 article Barbed affect: Bangladeshi child brides in India negotiate borders and citizenship Rimple Mehta, rimple.mehta@gmail.com Tata Institute of Social Sciences, Mumbai, India This paper is based on 14 interviews with young Bangladeshi women, who in

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123 NINE Which ethnic groups have the poorest health? Laia Bécares Key findings • Persistent inequalities in limiting long-term illness are seen in the health of Pakistani and Bangladeshi women. Their illness rates have both been 10 per cent higher than White women in 1991, 2001 and 2011. • The White Gypsy or Irish Traveller group, identified for the first time in the 2011 Census, have particularly poor health. Both men and women had twice the White British rates of long-term limiting illness and poor self-rated health, and throughout the life course they

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projects in North West England and West Yorkshire. The purpose of the SEQUAL research was to explore ‘promising practices’ that were being applied through the community and voluntary sector that could have wider application in improving labour market opportunities. The issues explored here are mostly concerned with women originating from South Asia or having a South Asian heritage and the text often refers specifically to Pakistani and Bangladeshi women. In reality, the projects deal with a much broader range of women from different origins and backgrounds but

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(McRae, 1993; Macran et al, 1996) but the effect of marriage and of having young children at home on women’s employment participation and hours of work differs among ethnic groups. For example, married Pakistani and Bangladeshi women have very low rates of economic activity, even where there are no dependent children, while for white women the presence of dependent children is associated with reduced economic activity and part-time work (Dale and Holdsworth, 1998). Among employed women with children, minority ethnic women are more likely than white women to work full

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. These aspects of demography and the extent of locally resident kin influence family patterns and life stages of Britain’s ethnic groups. Cultural and religious influences on differences in lifestyles are often considered in relation to both family forms and women’s economic inactivity rates, although the separation of the ‘cultural’ in this way is not unproblematic (Anthias, 2001). Family structure and kinship Poverty and ethnicity in the UK Marriage on its own was much more likely to reduce economic activity for Pakistani and Bangladeshi women than for

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ethnic group. In 2011, over one-third of Bangladeshi working men were employed part time. • Pakistani and Bangladeshi women were the least likely, in the 25- to 49-year- old age group, to be in the labour market, but also experienced the highest rises in rates of economic activity between 1991 and 2011 (from 24 to 43 per cent for Pakistani women and from 17 to 40 per cent for Bangladeshi women). • In the 50- to 74-year-old age group Pakistani and Bangladeshi women were the least likely to be in the labour market. From 1991 to 2011, these were the only groups that

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market. Economic activity and unemployment vary by gender and ethnicity (Lindley et al, 2004; EOC, 2006; Simpson et al, 2006; Yeandle et al, 2006j; Buckner et al, 2007) with, for example, Pakistani and Bangladeshi women far less likely than men and women in other ethnic groups to be economically active. However, women in these groups are also far more likely to be unemployed if they are economically active than women in other groups, and they also experience greater difficulty in engaging with their local labour market. In 2001, 15% of economically active

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