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153 NINE Conflict Case study: Catrina’s story Catrina (Respondent 17) is 19 years old, she was 12 when her parents separated. She found out by overhearing her parents arguing: ‘My mum shouted at my dad, she said she had stopped loving him and was going.’ She describes how initially she ‘thought the sky had fallen in’. She was ‘quite religious and wanted God to make it all better’. After her parents separated she hardly saw her mother for a while; this was because her parents could not agree on the living arrangements for her and her brothers. She recalls

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Conflicts due to differences in preferences, priorities, and the social meanings associated with mundane practices within households are the premise of countless television sitcoms—between parents and their adult children in Absolutely Fabulous , Frasier , and Steptoe and Son ; between parents and their children in The Simpsons , Family Ties , Out of this World , and King of the Hill ; between spouses in Bewitched , I Love Lucy , Dharma & Greg , and Keeping up Appearances ; between nonrelated adults living together, as in Mr. Belvedere , The Nanny

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Outcomes and interventions for children and families

There is increasing government recognition of the importance of early family experiences on individuals in the long term and of how inter-parental conflict influences children’s development. Recognition of the role of such factors early in life is key to helping both policy makers and practitioners promote positive outcomes for children. This accessible book reviews recent research showing how children who experience high levels of inter-parental conflict are at serious risk not only in terms of their own wellbeing, but also in relation to the perpetuation of these behaviours later in life.

It examines the differences between ‘destructive’ and ‘constructive’ conflict and how they affect children, explores why some children are more adversely affected than others, and features the latest evidence on how conflict affects child physiology. Of particular note is the book’s focus on the growing evidence-based literature on conflict interventions within the last decade. A primer for practitioners working with families, policy makers, students and academics, it will show how to improve the tomorrows for children who experience challenging family experiences today.

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Introduction Developing countries are among the most vulnerable to climate change and seasonal inter-annual climate variability. Societies living in violence and conflict-affected areas are particularly vulnerable to the physical impacts of climate change – although the magnitude and intensity of these impacts vary across geographical and climatological region (Adger et al, 2014 ). According to the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) ( 2017 ), droughts have affected about 363 million people in Sub-Saharan Africa over the past 20 years – 203 million of

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173 5 Conflict zones Introduction Rape is more common in conflict zones. This is linked to the greater use of violence during wartime, the absence of a consistent criminal justice infrastructure, the disruption of informal protections from households and the community, the greater gender imbalance in decision-making in militarised zones, and the specific use of rape as a weapon of war. There is sometimes a division in analysis and policy between concern with the higher rate of rape and sexual violence by a range of men in conflict zones, and the specific

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EPDF and EPUB available Open Access under CC-BY-NC-ND licence

The globalized era is characterized by a high degree of interconnectedness across borders and continents and this includes human migration. Migration flows have led to new governance challenges and, at times, populist political backlashes. A key driver of migration is environmental conflict and this is only likely to increase with the effects of climate change.

Bringing together world-leading researchers from across political science, environmental studies, economics and sociology, this urgent book uses a multifaceted theoretical and methodological approach to delve into core questions and concerns surrounding migration, climate change and conflict, providing invaluable insights into one of the most pressing global issues of our time.

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economic stagnation that potentially drives people out, not least due to violent conflict, political upheaval and deep corruption (Bearce and Laks Hutnick, 2011 ). Indeed, I know of no study that has addressed the question of natural resource wealth and outmigration, both indirectly because of bad governance and economic malaise as in countries such as Nigeria and Equatorial Guinea, and directly as a result of political chaos, in places such as Venezuela, Algeria, Iraq and Libya. While several global initiatives have worked to constrain the most harmful effects of bad

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How do local communities effectively build peace and reconciliation before, during and after open violence? This trailblazing book gives practical examples, from the Global North, the former Soviet bloc and Global South, on communities addressing conflict in divided and contested societies.

The book draws on a range of critical perspectives and practitioner analysis. The diverse case studies demonstrate the considerable knowledge, skills, commitment, courage and relationships within local communities that a critical community development approach can support and encourage.

Concluding with activists’ perspectives on working with the challenges of violence, the book offers insights for both an understanding of the root causes of conflict and for bottom-up peacebuilding.

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no access to safe water, implying that they have to drink from polluted sources, walk large distances to obtain water, face a high risk of dehydration, suffer health hazards from inadequate hygiene and sanitation, and have limited opportunities to engage in agriculture or production (Water.org, 2018 ). But does renewable resource scarcity have further security implications by triggering violent conflicts, which in turn can amplify migration flows? Several recent studies support such claims, for instance by arguing that water scarcity was one of the reasons for

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27 TWO Tactical rape and sexual violence in conflict Tactical rape is not a new phenomenon. It is deliberate, widespread policy rape implemented with definite intent. Even with the increasing formal recognition of its pernicious effects and its threats to human and state security, tactical rape continues. “In conflicts around the world, armies and armed groups use sexual violence as a devastating tactic of war,” said Nisha Varia, women’s rights advocacy director at Human Rights Watch.1 This does not mean that it is useless to insist on all possible steps

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