world. As the world changes, so too do our ideas and ideologies. External events can support ideological assumptions or challenge them. This book explores some of these events, through the lens of crises, to understand how such events have shaped the Labour Party’s ideology. Such events were, to different degrees, unpredictable and their effects are by no means consistent – events such as the First World War led to the party becoming the main challenger to the Conservative Party, the economic problems of 1931 propelled the party from government and generated deep
This chapter explores developments in the present conjuncture that have shaped the terrain on which the Battle for Britain is being fought. Building on the arguments about heterogeneous social relations and the possibilities for political mobilisation and demobilisation in the preceding chapters, I turn to the accumulating crises that have shaped the current dynamics of the conjuncture. In Chapter 2 , I argued that the UK (and the Euro-Atlantic system) had taken shape around two different conjunctural formations. The first, formed in the post-war/Cold War
95 4 Deconstructing Welfare Crises Introduction: state welfare and the crisis of imperialism This chapter further develops an analysis of the British state, focusing on state welfare. It argues that increasing conditionality has combined with long-standing forms of differential inclusion to tighten labour discipline and create conditions for more intense exploitation. This builds on the introductory discussion in Chapter 2 and the examination of the state’s role in regulating international migration in Chapter 3. The chapter begins by connecting the crises
Key messages Public finances are commonly unprepared for dealing with an economic crisis. This is partially explained by the economic models’ assumption of a stable long-run equilibrium. Incorporating a crisis perspective in the design of fiscal policy rules would improve welfare. Introduction Macroeconomic crises are common. High-income countries have experienced at least three major crises during the first two decades of the 21st century: the international financial crisis of 2007–09; the European debt crisis of 2011–15; and the COVID-19
electoral benefits in terms of its success in shaping (core) voters’ perceptions favourably. Classic examples include the construction of migration crises by Victor Orbán in Hungary in the period 2015–2018 ( Cantat and Rajaram, 2019 ) and by Donald Trump in the run-up to the US 2018 midterm elections ( Béland, 2019 ; Edwards, 2019 ). Policy style refers to the development of governing modes that structure instrument choices and design decisions in predictable ways ( Richardson et al, 1982 ; Howlett and Tosun, 2019a ). A crisis entails ‘a threat that is perceived to
This book traces the economic ideology of the UK Labour Party from its origins to the current day. Through its analysis, the book emphasises key crises, including the 1926 general strike, the 1931 Great Depression, the 1979 Winter of Discontent and the 2007 economic crisis.
In analysing this history, the ideology of the Labour Party is examined through four core themes:
the party’s definition of socialism;
the role of the state in economic decision making;
the party’s understanding of inequalities;
its relationship with external groups, such as the Fabian Society and the trade union movement.
The result is a systematic exploration of the drivers and key ideas behind the Labour Party’s economic ideology. In demonstrating how crises have affected the party’s economic policy, the book presents a historical analysis of the party’s evolution since its formation and offers insights into how future changes may occur.
Not one, but two crises The context of the current economic reality of Gulf Arab oil exporting states begins in late 2014. Global oil markets are still contending with a fundamental recalibration of supply, which US shale continues to upend. The Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) response to the advent of shale production began with a partnership with non-OPEC members Russia and Mexico in December 2016. That partnership is still in place, though it faced some volatile renegotiations in March and April 2020. Saudi Arabia has consistently
265 Policy & Politics • vol 47 • no 2 • 265–86 • © Policy Press 2019 Print ISSN 0305 5736 • Online ISSN 1470 8442 • https://doi.org/10.1332/030557318X15407316045688 Accepted for publication 03 September 2018 • First published online 14 December 2018 article The effects of economic crises on participatory democracy Pau Alarcón, firstname.lastname@example.org Universitat Pompeu Fabra, Barcelona, Spain Carol Galais, email@example.com Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Spain Joan Font, firstname.lastname@example.org Institute of Advanced Social Studies (IESA_CSIC), Cordoba
3 ONE Crises of non-participation Introduction The effects of the global financial crisis (GFC) on young people in and beyond the world’s richer countries would be a compelling and deserving subject for a comprehensive analytical project in the social sciences. This is especially so for those young people whose prospects for becoming socially and financially independent adults have been severely delayed, significantly impaired or placed beyond reach as a result. An authoritative description of and explanation for mass unemployment, how it has become