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97 FOUR Discrimination Defining discrimination What exactly is discrimination? Its specific role in generating disadvantage requires clarification: ‘it is essential to distinguish discrimination from the larger phenomenon of disadvantage, as this can be seen in patterns of gender and racial inequality. These patterns are the products of a great variety of causes, of which discrimination is but one’ (Banton, 1994, p 19). This general point does, of course, apply to patterns of inequality pertaining to other groups as well. Moreover, if patterns of

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Key findings Racism and racial discrimination shape the lives of ethnic minority groups in the UK: there are persistent experiences of racial discrimination both before and during the pandemic, across a wide range of settings. The Evidence for Equality National Survey (EVENS) enables an assessment of racism and racial discrimination experienced in the period before the start of the pandemic, and during its first year. Almost one in six ethnic minority people reported having experienced a racist physical assault. Over half of respondents from the Gypsy

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Introduction This book has two aspects and aims. First, it aims to unravel the extent to which discrimination in employment based on class and factors reflective of social background is prohibited in Australia, South Africa, Canada and New Zealand, and key differences in the law of each of these jurisdictions. Second, it examines the application of the law to the use of new technology and practices, to expose how their use creates risks of this type of discrimination and to propose how these technologies and practices can be re-imagined to reduce these

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Mapping Inequality in the Digital Age
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This book exposes how inequalities based on class and social background arise from employment practices in the digital age. It considers instances where social media is used in hiring to infiltrate private lives and hide job advertisements based on locality; where algorithms assess socio-economic data to filter candidates; where human interviewers are replaced by artificial intelligence with design that disadvantages users of classed language; and where already vulnerable groups become victims of digitalisation and remote work.

The author examines whether these practices create risks of discrimination based on certain protected attributes, including "social origin" in international labour law and laws in Australia and South Africa, "social condition" and "family status" in laws within Canada, and others. The book proposes essential law reform and improvements to workplace policy.

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The following material has to be placed in the wider context of long-standing and deeply rooted prejudice and discrimination against women in many societies, along with the high levels of sexual abuse and harassment in some organizations, professions and institutions. Nearly all the material relates to recent decades and the main focus is on higher education, with some of the most extensive accounts coming from the US. In the following chapter I shall comment on US society, its criminal justice system, campus policing and control and compliance. ‘Shattered

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105 FIVE muslims’ experiences of discrimination in public institutions Despite European Muslims’ confidence in the political and justice systems in Europe and its member states, our examination of criminal justice data in Chapter Three highlighted the religious minority’s concerns about crime victimization. More than one data source indicated that Muslims were more worried than non-Muslims about the possibility of victimization and about antisocial behaviour in their neighbourhoods. Data on discrimination provided in this chapter underscore the picture

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medical diagnosis perpetuates the pathologization of transgender people. As such, a deficit model of understanding trans people is reinforced in which they are positioned as inferior, and therefore become legitimate targets for hatred, discrimination and oppression. Throughout the public consultation, social media platforms have become a hotbed for ‘debate’, which has primarily focused on the implications self-identification has for single-sex spaces (including refuges and public toilets) and the ‘authenticity’ of transgender people (specifically transgender women

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249 TWELVE Age discrimination in history John Macnicol Introduction Age discrimination is once again back on the British political agenda. On 1 October 2006 there will come into force the new Age Regulations, which will outlaw age discrimination in key aspects of employment (principally recruitment, promotion and training) and extend full employment rights (for example, regarding unfair dismissal) to those aged 65+. All statutory retirement ages under 65 are to be banned (unless ‘objectively justified’) and employees will have a right to request to remain working

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Introduction As noted in Chapter 1 , discrimination on the basis of ‘social origin’ is prohibited by ILO conventions. Article 1 of ILO 111 prohibits discrimination on the basis of grounds including ‘social origin’ and article 5 of ILO 158 prohibits termination of employment on the basis of grounds including ‘social origin’. The term ‘social origin’ is not, however, defined in these instruments. In 1957 and 1958, when delegates from different countries were debating the meaning of the term ‘social origin’ in the proposed ILO 111 , there was much

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OnE Violence and discrimination against women 1.1 The figures and their absence This is not a book about violence against women; it is a book about responses by society to violence against women. However, having figures about violence in your hand is crucial. In fact, only by examining the extent and frequency of male violence can we appreciate the scale, determination and lack of scruples involved in covering up the violence. Only in this way does the importance of figures and statistics also become clear and, conversely, the significance and

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