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Work and welfare in the UK and USA
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Retirement is being ‘reconstructed’, with the UK following the US path of abolishing mandatory retirement and increasing state pension ages. This timely book assesses prospects for work and retirement at age 65-plus in the UK and US.

Part 1 explores the shifting ‘policy logics’ in both countries that increase both the need and opportunities to work past age 65. Part 2 presents an original comparative statistical analysis on the wide range of factors influencing employment at this age. Part 3 proposes a series of policies across the life-course that would promote security and autonomy for older people.

Pathways to employment after 65 are complex and pressures to work at this age are likely to result in very unequal outcomes. This book is essential reading for researchers, students and practitioners interested in the late careers and the future of retirement.

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European Experiences in a Neoliberal Era

More people are extending their working lives through necessity or choice in the context of increasingly precarious labour markets and neoliberalism. This book goes beyond the aggregated statistics to explore the lived experiences of older people attempting to make job transitions.

Drawing on the voices of older workers in a diverse range of European countries, leading scholars explore job redeployment and job mobility, temporary employment, unemployment, employment beyond pension age and transitions into retirement.

This book makes a major contribution and will be essential reading within a range of disciplines, including social gerontology, management, sociology and social policy.

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The Challenges of Managing Health at Work

The relationship between health and work is widely recognised as complex and multifaceted. In the context of an ageing population our ability to enable people with health issues to continue working is becoming more critical. This multi-disciplinary volume brings together original research from diverse disciplinary backgrounds investigating how we can define and operationalise a bio-psychosocial model of ill-health to improve work participation in middle and later life.

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Voluntary work by older people in Europe

‘Active ageing’ has become a key phrase in discourses about challenges and remedies for demographic ageing and the enrolment of older adults into voluntary work is an important dimension of it. The pattern and factors conditioning volunteering among older people has so far been an under-researched topic in Europe and this is the first book to study volunteering among older people comparatively and comprehensively.

In this topical book older people’s volunteering is studied in eight European countries at the structural, macro, meso and micro levels. Overall it highlights how different interactions between the levels facilitate or hinder older people’s inclusion in voluntary work and makes policy suggestions for an integrated strategy.

This book provides important new insights for academics and students interested in ageing societies, active ageing and voluntary work. It will also be of great value for policy makers and practitioners in third sector and voluntary organisations.

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This chapter sets out a four-year, multi-disciplinary and mixed methods study of older people’s paid and unpaid work, their contributions to their households, family networks and the economy. It situates older people’s work and poverty in the cleft between widespread low-paid and insecure work, inadequate public services and India’s ambitions in the global economy, which leaves older people bolstering household and family incomes, releasing women into the labour force and providing low cost services to workers and low cost inputs to businesses. The chapter describes the team’s innovative impact strategy to generate a public discussion of older people’s rights as workers and to a pension and to secure raised social pensions.

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retire and the age at which they can start to draw their pension. The Ageing Report maintained that raising the retirement age, restricting access to early retirement schemes (recently undertaken in Hungary, Latvia and Poland) and stronger links between pension benefits and pension contributions may create better incentives to remain in the labour market. However, the capacity to work in later life is decreased in a recession (Casey, 2012). Social investment measures that combat age barriers and/or promote age diversity are important in encouraging employment in

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in all the countries covered in this book. Furthermore, across the chapters, we have seen older people looking for opportunities that were available to them, consistent with neoliberal responsibiliation, and making choices within structural constraints, based on combinations of social class, gender, family circumstances, health and so on. Conclusion In this book we have sought to bring together the lived experience of older people facing job transitions in a European context. In comparative research on employment in older age the focus has all too often

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workers. Much of this literature is quantitative and explores the factors influencing employment (or anticipated employment) in older age including: health, wealth, motivations, domestic circumstances, caring responsibilities, line manager attitudes and behaviours, and work-related/human resource management factors (see Hasselhorn and Apt, 2015 for a review). However, relatively little attention is placed on the role of job changes as a means of extending working lives in European countries ( Hasselhorn and Apt, 2015 ; Hilsen and Midtsundstad, 2015 ; Lain, 2016

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component of retirement. In 2002, 10% of older people surveyed as part of the AARP Work and Career Study said that they planned to start their own business or work for themselves in retirement; in the 2012 survey, this had risen to 13%. The proportions working in self-employment rise sharply with age, which could imply significant movements into self-employment in older age. According to analysis of the HRS, just over 20% of men aged 51–61 were self-employed in 2002; when the men reached 61–71 in 2002, this had risen to 30% (Cahill and Quinn, 2014: 135). In 2006

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employment in the US is expected to be closer to that of wealthier individuals. This chapter therefore compares the influence of health and wealth on employment past 65 in the US and England, the largest country of the UK. First, consideration is given to the challenge of examining the influence on health on employment in older age with particular attention to the selection of suitable health measures. Second, employment rates at different levels of health are compared between countries, to see whether, as expected, employment was higher in the US. Third, the

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