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Perhaps it was Emile Durkheim who was the first rural criminologist in Europe when he described mechanical societies as small, homogenous, traditional people controlling each other using informal social control mechanisms. He also delineated organic societies that are big, heterogeneous and where people are alienated from each other. This is presumably the first social science work on the divide between the rural and urban. There has been a considerable change since Durkheim’s passing – mass migration from the ‘old’ world continued into the early twentieth

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Part One Europe

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As Europe’s public realms face upheaval, this is the first book to identify how social solidarity is being reinvented from below and redefined from above. Interdisciplinary transnational approaches provide new insights into the relationship between national and transnational social solidarity across Europe.Valuable to students, policy makers and scholars, it reveals social solidarity as the defining pillar of European integration, bringing a greater dimension and integrity beyond democracy across nation states.

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Many European cities have a shortage of good quality, affordable housing, but this problem has become less prominent in policy than it should be. This timely book aims to redress that balance. After an introductory chapter, expert contributors provide contemporary comparative accounts of housing renewal policy and practice in nine European countries in its physical, economic, social, community and cultural aspects. Shared concerns over energy conservation, social protection and inclusion, and the roles and responsibilities of the public and private sectors form the basis of a proposed policy agenda for housing renewal across Europe. The concluding chapters draw conclusions from a pan-European perspective and consider the future prospects for renewing older housing.

Academics, practitioners, policy-makers and students of housing, urban studies, planning, regeneration, environmental health and sustainability will all want to read this book.

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Policy & Politics vol 28 no 3 309 Comparing unemployment in the UK and European Union: a gender and working time analysis Monica Threlfall English The claim that the UK’s ‘flexible’ labour market had generated greater job creation than in other EU countries is challenged through a rereading of European labour force trends, focusing on gender, age and working time. The UK performance was characterised by long-standing high rates of male unemployment, a high want-to-work rate, fragmented employment, and the absorption of female demand into part-time work. The

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A handbook of education, labour and welfare regimes in Central and Eastern Europe

The expansion of the European Union (EU) has put an end to the East-West division of Europe. At the same time it has increased the cultural heterogeneity, social disparities and economic imbalances within the EU, exemplified in the lower living standards and higher unemployment rates in some of the new member states.

This important new reference work describes the education systems, labour markets and welfare production regimes in the 10 new Central and Eastern Europe (CEE) countries. In three comparative chapters, discussing each of these domains in turn, the editors provide a set of theory-driven, comprehensive and informative indicators that allow comparisons and rankings within the new EU member states. Ten country-specific chapters follow, each written by experts from those countries: Bulgaria, the Czech Republic, Estonia, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, Romania, Slovakia and Slovenia. These chapters provide detailed information on each country’s education and training systems, labour market structure and regulations, and its provision of formal and informal welfare support. An important component of each country chapter is the explanation of the historical background and the specific national conditions for the institutional choices in the transitional years.

The handbook provides policy makers with the tools to assess the institutional changes in CEE countries, and scholars with ways to apply the proposed indicators to their analytic research. It will be a vital resource that no major research library should be without.

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17 Reconstituting Europe ONE Reconstituting Europe: governing a European people? John Clarke Introduction European integration remains one of the most controversial political projects of the current period. It is the focus of much political conflict and considerable academic debate. Integration through the institutions of the European Union (EU) is often represented as the expression of an underlying European essence – a unity of place, people or culture. Such imaginaries have proved to be persistently unstable and contestable, providing an imperfect basis for

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Freedom. For over sixty years, a group of states has fought to secure greater freedom of movement for Europe’s workers: their ‘fourth freedom’. The Treaty of Rome (ToR) trumpeted the ‘Freedom of movement for workers shall be secured within the Community by the end of the transitional period at the latest’ (ToR, 1957 : Art. 48). Countless treaties, directives and court decisions have ploughed a path to make it easier for workers to find employment away from home. The focus of this effort has been on reducing the regulatory and administrative barriers that are

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Differentiated Integration, Fairness, and Democracy

The European Union (EU) is often portrayed as sacrificing national diversity for European unity. This book explores the alternative of a flexible EU based on differentiated rather than uniform integration.

The authors combine normative theory with empirical research on political party actors to assess the desirability and political acceptability of differentiated integration as a means of accommodating heterogeneity in the EU. They examine the circumstances and institutional design needed for flexibility to promote rather than undermine fairness and democracy within and between member states.

Clear, balanced, and accessible, the book provides fresh thinking on the future of the EU.

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An empirical study of strategic police leadership
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Little is known about those at the command end of policing in Europe. Over the last two years, Bryn Caless and Steve Tong have had unique access to those at the top of Europe’s police forces, obtaining detailed comments from more than a hundred strategic police leaders in 22 countries and presenting, for the first time, information about how they are selected for high office, how they are held to account and what their views are on current and future challenges in policing. Building on research conducted in the UK, this is a timely and unparalleled insight into a little-known elite in the law-enforcement world.

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