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internal divisions on foreign policy, a comprehensive interpretation about the unwinding of some of the key ingredients that allowed over past decades the European integration to successfully progress stands as a welcome assistance. It helps negotiators to understand the nature of the stalemate they face when they gather today helplessly in long and ineffective EU meetings. The emphasis put by both authors on the structural dimension of this potential European disintegration is timely. The sense of disheartened activity spinning around in circles with very little

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51 Global Discourse • vol 9 • no 1 • 51–55 © Bristol University Press 2019 • Online ISSN 2043-7897 https://doi.org/10.1332/204378918X15453934505932 REPLY Comments on Rosamond and Outhwaite: European disintegration Pierre Vimont, pierre.vimont7@gmail.com Carnegie Europe To cite this article: Vimont, P. (2019) Reply: Comments on Rosamond and Outhwaite: European disintegration, Global Discourse, vol 9, no 1, 51-55, DOI: 10.1332/204378918X15453934505932 Having read with great expectation and a certain dose of anxiety the two articles written by Ben Rosamond

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Introduction Brexit has prompted renewed calls for EU studies to take seriously the problem of European disintegration. In fact, ‘disintegration’ has been on the field’s agenda for some time. With the EU suffering a ‘perfect storm’ of crises, some of which are thought to be existential, it is perhaps unsurprising that there have been calls to theorise disintegration ( Zielonka, 2014 ) as well as a few attempts to map out what a theory of disintegration might look like ( Jones, 2018 ; Vollaard, 2014 , 2018; Webber, 2014 ). Part of the turn to

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RESEARCH The limits of EUrope Russell Foster, Russell.1.foster@kcl.ac.uk King’s College, London, UK Jan Grzymski, j.grzymski@lazarski.edu.pl Lazarski University, Warsaw, Poland Key words European integration • crisis of the EU • European disintegration • populism To cite this article: Foster, R. and Grzymski, J. (2019) The limits of EUrope, Global Discourse, vol 9, no 1, 5-13, DOI: 10.1332/204378918X15453934505897 The boundaries of Europe are quite unknown. Herodotus Histories IV, xiv-xvi c.440 BC In his fifth-century BCE chronicle of the Graeco-Persian Wars

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, policyscotland.gla.ac.uk/blog-sir-ivan-rogers-speech-text-in-full/ Rosamond , B . ( 2016 ) ‘ Brexit and the problem of European disintegration ’, Journal of Contemporary European Research , 12 ( 4 ): 864 – 871 . Rupnik , J . and Zielonka , J . ( 2013 ) ‘ Introduction: The state of democracy 20 Years on ’, East European Politics and Societies and Cultures , 27 ( 1 ): 3 – 25 . Sanders , A . and von Danwitz , L . ( 2018 ) ‘ Selecting judges in Poland and Germany: challenges to the rule of law in Europe and propositions for a new approach to judicial legitimacy

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) Rethinking the union of Europe post-crisis: has integration gone too far? Cambridge : Cambridge University Press . Mody , A . ( 2018 ) EuroTragedy: a drama in nine acts , New York : Oxford University Pres s. 10.1093/oso/9780199351381.001.0001 Murray , D. ( 2017 ) The strange death of Europe , London : Bloomsbury . Offe , C . ( 2015 ) Europe entrapped , London : Polity Press . Streeck , W . ( 2014 ) Buying time. The delayed crisis of democratic capitalism , London and New York : Verso. Vollaard , H . ( 2014 ) ‘ Explaining European

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Identities, Spaces, Values

Is the European Union (EU) in a state of crisis? Over recent years, a series of systemic and spontaneous challenges, including Brexit, the rise of Euroscepticism and the Eurozone and refugee crises, have manifested in landmark moments for European integration.

First published as a special issue of the journal Global Discourse, this edited collection investigates whether these crises are isolated phenomena or symptoms of a deeper malaise across the EU. Experts from across disciplines analyse and rethink the forces which pull Europeans together, as well as those which push them apart.

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which revolved around the tensions between neoliberalism and conceptions of the state centred on statism and welfare, where social justice rather than profit was the central governing force. Both discourses (identity and socio- BRITAIN AND EUROPE AT A CROSSROADS 130 economic) were accentuated and inflamed by the financial crisis of 2008 and a populist backlash against globalization, with some propounding a theory of ‘European disintegration’ leading to the unravelling of the democratic capitalist compact with which European integration has been so firmly

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The chapters by Ben Rosamond and William Outhwaite stimulate new thinking about the causes, manifestations and trajectories of de-Europeanisation, differentiation and disintegration in Europe in different ways. While Rosamond focuses on what we can and cannot learn from (neofunctionalist) integration theories about the manifestations and causes of disintegration, Outhwaite draws our attention to the significant differences in how (member) states have related to Europe while also discussing key pathologies and problems of the Union’s constitutional order. Outhwaite’s piece returns frequently to the British case and the country’s elite’s relations to Europe, whereas Rosamond is more interested in exploring larger forces at play in the systemic weakening of the ‘democratic capitalism compact’ and ‘permanent austerity’. While neither of the pieces claims explicitly to advance recommendations on how to best respond to the increasing contestation of the European order, Rosamond appears to agree that more of the same kind of Europe should NOT be the answer.

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William Outhwaite’s chapter is an intriguing piece of analysis of some of the terms involved in the disintegration field. It sits well beside Ben Rosamond’s chapter on (dis) integration theory. Several of the academic terms used are actually widely referenced in the practitioner community. Many are culled from Leon Lindberg’s and Stuart Scheingold’s Europe’s would-be polity (1970), developing Ernst Haas’s neofunctionalist approach – in the end the theory that practitioners mainly return to – perhaps because in the 1970s that was the fashion, and it was then that they were ambitiously studying ‘Europe’. The key terms are: equilibrium, spill-over, spill-back, forward linkage, system failure and system transformation. But do they cover the issues persuasively?

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