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67 3 Governance Introduction This chapter explores the governance of planning in the UK, including the role that organisations and the public play in the process. An understanding of the spatial scales at which planning decisions are made is provided to explain the ‘hierarchy’ of responsibility on which the planning systems in the UK operate. We outline the different decision-making levels – from the international and national tiers down to district and neighbourhood level – alongside summaries of the agencies of planning. The diversity agenda is briefly

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regions in England are being brought to the centre stage of policy and politics to address, firstly, paraphrasing Lindblom ( 1968 ), the ‘problem’ of economic growth and a rebalancing of this geographically to iron-out issues of spatial combined and uneven development (see Martin, 2015 ), and secondly, the ‘problem’ of securing effective and accountable governance arrangements, whereby effective economic growth and development is contingent on open and transparent engagements with civil society. This model is being heavily influenced by the US ‘Metropolitics

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Introduction What would a reimagined set of governance arrangements for the Westminster parliament look like? That is, what would be the ideal set of arrangements to deal with and resolve issues of parliamentary administration – finance, staffing, infrastructure and engagement? Parliamentary governance is an important issue, rarely raised (for exceptions, see Yong, 2018 ; White, 2022 ). Most people focus on the partisan debates in the chamber and scrutiny of the executive via committees – even parliamentarians themselves. Questions of internal governance

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255 Section D: Governance

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Puzzling, powering and participation
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Contemporary democracies need to develop a better governance of problems, as all too often, policy is a sophisticated answer to the wrong problem. This book offers a compelling approach to public policy-making as problem processing, bringing together aspects of puzzling, powering and participation, relating them in interesting and different ways to cultural theory, to issues about networks, to models of democracy and modes of citizen participation. Part of a growing body of work in policy analysis literature, the book is clearly written and accessibly presented, making this an ideal text for academics and postgraduate students.

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REVIEW ARTICLE Institutions in global governance Samuel M. Makinda* School of Management and Governance, Murdoch University, Perth, Australia In their book, Gridlock: why global cooperation is failing when we need it most, Hale, Held, and Young argue persuasively why post-World War II institutions delivered the global cooperation anticipated but ended up creating other serious problems for international society. They explain how the successes of earlier cooperation efforts produced greater multipolarity, institutional inertia, institutional fragmentation, and

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Introduction There is a significant lack of Black, Asian and minority ethnic leadership in all governance systems in universities, with Black, Asian and minority ethnic staff struggling to progress to tenure and/or leadership positions. Governing bodies lack diversity with few Black, Asian and minority ethnic members, female members and those from disabled backgrounds ( Advance HE, 2020a ). In the context of good governance, the Framework for Supporting Governing Body Effectiveness Reviews in Higher Education ( Advance HE, 2020b ) recognises that diversity

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1 oNE Policy networks and new governance The focus of this book is on ongoing and related changes in education policy, policy networks and governance in England; in particular, the increasing participation of philanthropy and business in policy and service delivery. In this chapter we will sketch out the conceptual terrain across which our analysis moves and introduce some of the key ideas that we draw upon and deploy later. However, this is neither an exhaustive review of the literatures on policy networks and network governance nor an attempt to engage

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39 TWO conceptualising governance and planning reform The age of continual reform We saw in Chapter One that both the planning system and the wider public sector context in which British planning is situated have been the objects of concerted reform over the last 15 years in central and devolved government in Great Britain. Hull sums up the reforms thus: Public service provision has been slowly re-configured since the early 1980s by the introduction of ‘market’ measures of efficiency. So far, the ‘hard’ infrastructure of the planning system has remained

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35 2 The governance of complexity and the complexity of governance The natural and social worlds (and their interconnections) are far too complex to be understood in all their complexity or effectively governed in all their complexity in real time. This pair of statements is too simple: complexity is complex. This is reflected in the tendency for complexity to become a chaotic concept – especially in the social sciences, where mathematical formalization is difficult and metaphorical expression is common. It follows that we must first reduce the complexity

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