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Introduction This chapter identifies the key changes that have been taking place in the labour market and how these are affecting people’s experience of work and employment. Employment relations as a subject takes a different perspective on labour ( Rubery, 2005 , 2015 ) than that found in a standard economics text. Instead of focusing on the market and the aggregate demand and supply of different categories of labour, employment relations recognizes that most people are in jobs and not seeking to enter or change employment at any one point in time

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39 3 To market, to market Burly and crop-headed, Neil Stockwell patrols the perimeter of his fruit and veg stall at the entrance to Queen’s Market in Upton Park, East London, like a lovable bull terrier. For 35 years he’s exchanged banter with all-comers, from Asian elders to young West Ham United supporters on their way to a match. Every passer-by seems to know him. Queen’s Market is bright, bustling and hugely popular. It’s been here for a century, and is everyone’s meeting point, drawing white East Enders from behind their well-clipped hedges in Central

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Can they deliver an equitable service?
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The viability, quality and sustainability of publicly supported early childhood education and care services is a lively issue in many countries, especially since the rights of the child imply equal access to provision for all young children. But equitable provision within childcare markets is highly problematic, as parents pay for what they can afford and parental income inequalities persist or widen.

This highly topical book presents recent, significant research from eight nations where childcare markets are the norm. It also includes research about ‘raw’ and ‘emerging’ childcare markets operating with a minimum of government intervention, mostly in low income countries or post transition economies. Childcare markets compares these childcare marketisation and regulatory processes across the political and economic systems in which they are embedded. Contributions from economists, childcare policy specialists and educationalists address the question of what constraints need to be in place if childcare markets are to deliver an equitable service.

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37 3 Making Markets Men, thinly scattered, make a shift, but a bad shift, without many things. A smith is ten miles off: they’ll do without a nail or a staple. A taylor is far from them: they’ll botch their own clothes. It is being concentrated which produces high convenience. Dr Samuel Johnson in Boswell’s Journal of A Tour To The Hebrides, entry for Sunday, 15 August 17731 Central places and the markets they make Following on from the role of the networks in driving location, we now explore how and why central places come to dominate particular markets

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4 Market welfare Robin Miller Overview Despite common assumptions that welfare is largely the domain of the public and not-for-profit sectors most countries will have elements of market welfare. This relates to both the funding and the delivery of welfare services. Different conceptualisations exist regarding how we define what is mean by ‘market welfare’ and the extent of its contribution. Governments often consider private business to display positive characteristics and therefore encourage increased access through processes described as ‘privatisation

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In the early years of European integration, there was a broad recognition of the need to integrate economies in a way that allowed policymakers to stabilize their home markets. As we saw in Chapter 4 , this was done to ensure that market integration didn’t drive labour conditions and wages downward in a competitive race to the bottom. Over the decades, this lesson has been lost on policymakers, as member states have jettisoned many of the tools necessary for local economic stabilization. Today, European integration is animated by a belief that bigger markets

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353 Evidence & Policy • vol 9 • no 3 • 353-69 • © Policy Press 2013 • #EVPOL Print ISSN 1744 2648 • Online ISSN 1744 2656 • http://dx.doi.org/10.1332/174426413X662671 research Knowledge brokers, entrepreneurs and markets Chris Caswill, c.j.caswill@btinternet.com University of Manchester, UK Catherine Lyall, c.lyall@ed.ac.uk University of Edinburgh, UK This paper expands the discussion of knowledge brokerage by connecting it to long-standing debates within the social sciences about the effective transmission of scientifically produced knowledge into the

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THREE The British paid labour market1 In this chapter, I discuss existing statistical data on UK’s labour force and its characteristics. The quantitative data is complemented with rich qualitative accounts from recent Polish migrants to the UK. Different sectors of the economy are explored in particular agriculture, horticulture, hospitality, customer services and healthcare. These are most reliant on workforce from the EU. Data on population characteristics are analysed taking into account the fact that it is ageing rapidly as is the rest of Europe. This

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597 Policy & Politics • vol 42 • no 4 • 597-614 • © Policy Press 2014 • #PPjnl @policy_politics Print ISSN 0305 5736 • Online ISSN 1470 8442 • http://dx.doi.org/10.1332/030557312X655918 Market size, market share and market strategy: three myths of medical tourism Neil Lunt, neil.lunt@york.ac.uk Daniel Horsfall, daniel.horsfall@york.ac.uk University of York, UK Richard Smith, richard.smith@lshtm.ac.uk London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, UK Mark Exworthy, m.exworthy@rhul.ac.uk Royal Holloway, University of London, UK Johanna Hanefeld

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Introduction Evolution of the market Markets occupy a central role in economic theory. It is assumed that we understand them – but do we really? This chapter suggests that we do not. We know a lot, but not so much as we should. Markets remain a subject of controversy in popular debates over economic policy and historical debates over commercialization and capitalism. That is why we need to learn more. Markets facilitate trade. Trade, it is often assumed, developed from small beginnings in chance encounters; for example, two people meet on a country

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