171 SIX Membership Introduction The concept of citizenship implies membership of some form of community; in turn the notion of community opens up questions about terms of inclusion and exclusion. This chapter’s focus is to consider the ground rules which are seen by welfare service users as being pertinent for individuals to be included in or excluded from arrangements for the collective provision of welfare benefits and services. Throughout the research sessions, it became clear that many users saw certain people as having legitimate claims to welfare while
95 FIVE Coherent membership Democratic governance needs those under its jurisdiction to have a strong enough sense of togetherness to support and accept collective decisions that will be binding on everyone. We have seen that this requires the cultivation of shared missions and the development of mutual respect among those involved. One further factor that must be taken into account is the need for coherent membership. Any group – a local association, a business, a country – must have a coherent approach to managing its membership if it is not to lose its
69 7 Stability and change in class membership over time Introduction Chapters 5 and 6 demonstrated how class membership based upon couples’ division of housework was connected to individual- and couple-level characteristics. Chapter 5 documented the general characteristics of the five classes. Housework performance, as measured by class membership, reflected how power was negotiated within the household. We saw differences across the five classes in spouses’ relationships to the labor market, their gender attitudes, and demographic characteristics like
Policy and Politics. Vo!'11 No.1 (1983),1-13 'A TALE OF TWO QUANGOCRACIES': Membership of Commercial Public Boards in Britain -1950-style and 1980-style Christopher Hood If one compared the membership structure of commercial public boards in Britain in 1950 with that of 1980, how different would one expect the two patterns to be? At least two contrasting expectations might be postulated. One, an 'inertia hypothesis', would stress the features which make the structure of public agencies impervious to change, and would therefore not lead us to expect that the
this study, we contribute to the literature by taking China as an example to explore the relationship between political ideology and charitable giving. Unlike Western democracies, the Communist Party of China (CPC) is the ruling party in China: although there are eight other political parties active in China, those eight parties do not have enough political power to compete with the CPC. Membership of the CPC (hereafter referred to as ‘Party membership’) plays an important role in social life in China and is closely associated with human and social capital, including
Nations secretary-general had pursued. During 1946, as the Security Council grappled with crisis situations in Iran and Greece, and disagreements over membership admissions, Lie took advantage of the opportunities presented to establish firm precedents for the political activities of the UN secretary-general. Lie’s interpretation of his powers under article 99 and his actions based on this interpretation, led to changes in the informal practices of the UN. Furthermore, for the first and only time, the expansion of the secretary-general’s role was also formally
263 FOURTEEN Evolving social policy languages in Spain: what did democracy and EU membership change? Ana M. Guillén and David Luque This chapter analyses the historical evolution of the social policy languages and concepts in Spain. It focuses on the changing meanings of ‘social security’ (seguridad social) and ‘welfare state’ (estado del bienestar) but it also takes into account how entitlements and recipients were defined and how these notions changed over time. The interest in the Spanish case for analysing the evolution of social policy language is
This book provides a comprehensive overview of the evolution and particularities of regional organizations across Africa, the Americas, Asia and Europe since 1945.
The authors analyze the membership dynamics and policy scopes of 76 organizations, and compare their opportunities and challenges in regional governance. They consider organizations’ competencies in eleven different policy areas, including trade, security and environment, and trace patterns in their development.
For those with interests in comparative regionalism, international relations, political science and international law, this is an essential companion to some of the world’s most significant organizations.
Britain’s relationship with the European Union (EU) is frequently viewed as simple by the media and politicians. In ways - never really explained - the EU has managed to ‘take away’ Britain’s sovereign powers and has the ability to determine much of its legislation. The history of how this has occurred is never discussed, unlike other countries in Europe.How Europe shapes British public policy examines the development of the EU as a sectarian issue in the UK. It discusses the effects of disengagement through the political practices of policy making and the implications that this has had for depoliticisation in government and the civil service. It considers the effects of EU membership in shaping key policy areas - trade and privatisation, the single market and the environment, and subsidiarity in the development and implementation of devolved and decentralised governance.This book gives new and essential insights for students and practitioners of politics, governance and international relations.
Drawing on a range of disciplinary, conceptual and theoretical approaches, this book analyses the complex interconnections between social policy formation and implementation in the European Union before and during the UK’s membership. It explores the issues, debates and policy challenges facing the EU at different stages in its development, and shows how the UK promoted and hampered social integration. With the UK’s decision to leave the EU as one of the greatest challenges in the EU’s history, this book seeks to understand the role played by social policy in the referendum campaign and withdrawal negotiations, and considers what Brexit means for social policy development both in the UK and across the EU.