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1 (or the SCS hereafter)—a marginal sea area that is partially surrounded by Northeast (China and Taiwan) and Southeast (Malaysia, the Philippines, Brunei, Indonesia, Singapore, and Vietnam) Asian countries—has become one of the most visible maritime geographic spaces of conflict in the region. In Southeast Asia, four out of ten countries therein are active claimants of a part of the SCS region: Vietnam, the Philippines, Malaysia, and Brunei. As one of the world’s highly militarized site of inter-state territorial conflicts, the SCS is economically significant

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behalf of women and girls (NGO-ization) and increased foreign and state-led military action (militarization) within fragile spaces in Niger impacts women’s agency and their experience of gender-based violence (GBV). This chapter questions what happens to women’s agency within spaces that are increasingly characterized by concurrent NGO-ization and militarization. This chapter first contextualizes Niger within the larger Sahelian space, visiting the ways the Sahel has been conceptualized. It then argues that Niger represents a space characterized by both NGO-ization and

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RESEARCH ARTICLE The containment of Occupy: militarized police forces and social control in America Matthew Morgan* Department of Political Science, York University, York Centre for International and Security Studies, Toronto, Canada The spread of the Occupy movement across the globe has reinvigorated the political, expanding the horizon of possibility after over thirty years of closure imposed by neoliberalism. While a literature which analyzes the interlinking nature of these social movements across the world is emerging, the response to them by powerful public

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as environment and social welfare and even the office in charge of several internal peace processes. This chapter focuses on the developments in Philippine civil–military relations from 2010 onwards. It argues that the change of the military’s original reformist stance favouring democratic civilian control towards one of a more politicized disposition can be explained by two interrelated structural factors. The first is the presence of informal institutions such as the militarization of civilian structures and the traditional reliance on the military regarding

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REPLY Hailing the police, occupy politics and counter-militarization: a reply to Matthew Morgan Victor E. Kappeler* School of Justice Studies, Eastern Kentucky University, Richmond, KY 40475, USA This is a reply to: Morgan, Matthew. 2014. “The containment of Occupy: militarized police forces and social control in America.” Global Discourse. 4 (2–3): 267–284. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/ 23269995.2014.888618. In his essay on ideological and repressive state apparatuses, Louis Althusser (1971) gives us the now classic example of the process of subjectification by the

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Cross-National Perspectives

This volume brings together international experts to provide fresh perspectives on geopolitical concerns in the South China Sea.

The book considers the interests and security strategies of each of the nations with a claim to ownership and jurisdiction in the Sea. Examining contexts including the region’s natural resources and China’s behaviour, the book also assesses the motivations and approaches of other states in Asia and further afield.

This is an accessible, even-handed and comprehensive examination of current and future rivalries and challenges in one of the most strategically important and militarized maritime regions of the world.

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there are also global economic ramifications. As a responsible stakeholder, South Korea is concerned that the peace and good order of the region are threatened by the intractable attitudes of the parties involved, which seem committed to irreconcilable legal and political stances, and show little interest in resolving their differences through negotiation. On the contrary, there is an ongoing process of escalation: smaller countries are building up their navies and maritime law forces, China is also expanding its capabilities, including by creating and militarizing

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Introduction The South China Sea has once again become a flashpoint for conflict between China and some ASEAN states, particularly the Philippines and Vietnam. It has also strained relations between China and the United States (US). China’s recent position of growing more assertive in advancing its claims has raised tensions and risked the militarization of competing claims by other states including the US and its allies. The diplomatic impasse between China and the ASEAN claimant states, as well as within ASEAN has, furthermore, made the situation less

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