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have also highlighted the challenges, opportunities, and strengths in the scenarios, contexts, and settings that are underrepresented, excluded, and marginalised from the science communication ‘mainstream’, both in the Global North and the Global South. These globally inclusive discourses are highly pertinent given systemic global inequalities and the differential science education and science communication systems in many parts of the globe. We need a broader framework for science communication that will transcend the Global North–South divide to explain the

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Climate change has recently received a lot of attention, but global environmental governance deals with a much broader range of problems, including deforestation, ocean pollution and freshwater scarcity. The Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) are an effort to integrate environmental governance and socio-economic development. This volume provides an accessible and comprehensive introduction to the most important areas of global sustainability governance for the environment. Authors highlight the prevailing, but controversial, perception of the environment as a global commodity. Actors and institutions demonstrate the highly fragmented and polycentric landscape of global sustainability governance. Planetary boundaries do not contradict development goals per se. However, innovative and alternative forms of governance that integrate environmental, social and economic goals are limited to voluntary actions. There are alarming signs that governments are generally trading off the environment in implementation. There is hence a need to consider seriously what comes after the SDGs and whether to continue along the chosen paths.

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et al, 2013; Wilks-Heeg, 2003), and other research suggests that London only really began to grow in the levels taken for granted today as a result of policy in the 1980s while remaining insulated from comparative downturn in the 1990s (Robson et al, 2000). In addition, and as discussed in Chapter 2, it can be argued that in the last 20 years, London’s growth has been driven by a level of political autonomy and investment hitherto unseen by other UK cities. Combined, this has deepened the so-called ‘North–Southdivide, a planning issue that enjoys the same

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, preventable. The fact that it was not brings into sharp relief the depths of the ethical-political morass in which the international order is mired. The pandemic’s first wave demonstrated that the risk of infection and death were gruesomely uneven along the North/South divide, and along their internal hierarchies of race, class, age, gender, citizenship, disability, religion, caste and sexuality. Yet the most powerful states responded with increased support for the corporate and business sectors, especially the big pharmaceuticals. As states poured massive subsidies into

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industrial architecture, may reinforce the revival of Manchester, now strongly competing with Birmingham as Britain’s second city. As a result of these signals, Pathfinder boards have been warned that their funds may be curtailed from 200729. North–South divide Britain’s prosperity and vigorous economic performance mask our over-reliance on London and the South East as the drivers of growth, while the cities of the North and Midlands still cope with the long legacy of industrial decline. The cost of being the first country to industrialise was the premature dilapidation of

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281 TWENTY Geopolitical aspects of health: austerity and health inequalities Clare Bambra, Kayleigh Garthwaite and Amy Greer Murphy Introduction This chapter examines the effects of austerity on geographical inequalities in health using case studies of the North–South health divide in England and inequalities in health between local neighbourhoods. The chapter is divided into three sections. First, it introduces how geography matters for health, outlining the two case studies – the North–South divide and local inequalities. It then outlines the austerity

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societies considered backward, pre-modern or unable to produce their own knowledge. It has been argued for instance that the rise of colonial anthropology both preceded and coincided with the expansion of European colonisation of Africa (Moore, 1993 and Gruffydd, 2013 ). Since then, Western knowledge about non-European societies has been characterised mainly by creating hierarchical, dichotomising and classificatory categories in order to justify attempts to control and dominate them. In this sense, the Global North-South divide is the result of evolving categories

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. While the North/South divide remained and even deepened throughout the period and alongside the changes in the Italian economy, two parallel 55 Long-term trends since the early 1990s and symmetrical changes occurred in the profile of the poor since the second half of the 1990s. Children and, to a lesser degree, the young (aged under 34) became the age groups with the highest relative incidence of poverty. Large families, in fact, which had also previously been one of the major risk groups, became more vulnerable to poverty because of wage compression little

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decentralisation has not yet produced strong improvement and a territorial convergence process. Instead, in certain policy fields, decentralisation and managerialisation seem to How many Italian welfare states are there? 295 have helped more those areas where welfare provision was already performing better in the 1990s. Different territorial models of social citizenship: is there an Italian specificity? The results so far show that the Italian welfare state is highly differentiated in terms of its territorial performance, with a clear- cut North–South divide. But how does

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engrained and where access to the basics, a decent job and a house can seem like a pipe dream.2 The unequal nature of Britain goes beyond simplistic arguments about a North–South divide. We are a starkly divided nation in terms of long-term regional performance, despite rhetoric about rebalancing the economy from successive governments. Cuts to public investment have had different impacts on different parts of England, with many Northern economies disproportionately affected. Chapter 5 explores this problem in more detail. Alongside these growing divisions, the

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