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167 EIGHT Family income as a protective factor for child outcomes Ilan Katz and Gerry Redmond Introduction It is well established in the child development literature that children from materially deprived backgrounds have poorer outcomes than those from wealthy families (Hoff et al, 2002; Centre for Community Child Health Royal Children’s Hospital, 2004; Richardson and Prior, 2005). There is now a significant body of literature on the relationships between indicators of material and social well-being on the one hand, and child outcomes on the other (Bor et

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roles, in which the (heterosexual) male head of household’s role was to protect his family from harm, including by providing for them economically. In short, it examines forms of protective masculinity , although the article argues that protective femininity is also possible. The article cites examples from a variety of countries but focuses on analysing the gendered, affective political discourse revealed by Donald Trump’s and Joe Biden’s competing campaigns in the 2020 US presidential election. Brief comparisons and contrasts are then made with the discourse of

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97 Families, Relationships and Societies • vol 5 • no 1 • 97–108 • © Policy Press 2016 • #FRS Print ISSN 2046 7435 • Online ISSN 2046 7443 • http://dx.doi.org/10.1332/204674314X14041323069042 research Agamben and the political positioning of child welfare-involved mothers in child protective services Lorraine Waterhouse, lorraine.waterhouse@ed.ac.uk Janice McGhee, janice.mcghee@ed.ac.uk The University of Edinburgh, UK In the UK, protecting children from maltreatment is an administrative and juridical system with law as ultimate arbiter of whether a mother

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2 PROTECTIVE LEGISLATION IN BRITAIN, 1870-1990: equality, difference and their implications for women Jane lewis and Celia Davies Protective legislation sets special con- ditions around women's participation in the labour market and involves consideration of hours, wages and reproductive hazards. Fromthe late nineteenth century, arguments have been couched in what contemporary feminist theory calls the equality versus difference debate-the call, on the one hand for identical treatment of the two sexes and on the other for recognition of women'sspecial needs. This

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47 3 Financialisation and social protection? The UK’s path towards a socially protective public– private pension system Paul Bridgen Introduction The concept of financialisation has been used by scholars in a range of disciplines since the turn of the century to describe structural developments in late-modern capitalism. Financialisation refers broadly to ‘the increasing role of financial motives, financial markets, financial actors and financial institutions in the operation of the domestic and international economies’ (Epstein, 2006: 3). A larger role

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Key messages Gender-based violence is a type of interpersonal violence with specific characteristics and consequences. Gender-based violence requires specific short- and long-term treatment. Identification of risk factors and protection against gender-based violence: Experiencing gender violence in childhood is a risk factor and perceiving social support is a protective factor. Introduction In 1998, the World Health Organization (WHO) recognised that violence is a public health issue and that women and girls are particularly vulnerable to its

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help women reintegrate safely into the community and cease offending. The Active Risk Management System (ARMS), a tool aimed at developing a case management plan for those convicted of sexual offences, has recently been implemented into the practice of police and probation officers (Blandford and Kewley, 2017 ). The unique position of the tool is the strengths-based approach it adopts; that is, while it considers the known risks 1 of sexual recidivism, the tool requires assessors to also consider the strengths and protective factors 2 a client may present which

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broadly often leads to ‘othering’, as highlighted in Walklate and McCulloch’s chapter, and inhibits the consideration of protective factors. This also translates to victims’ experiences, with some women’s perceived ‘risky behaviours’ being used as a way of justifying or minimising experiences of sexual violence, particularly prevalent in media representations (see chapters by Fohring and Korkodeilou). We, therefore, argue that successful prevention strategies cannot be fully be achieved unless patriarchy and gender inequality are recognised as key enablers of sexual

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. While much of the literature considers these issues separately, they are often viewed as two sides of the same coin, particularly by older people; they also intersect with the notion of protective factors. For both prevention and promotion, it can be challenging to establish a relationship between inputs and outcomes: the role played by promotional activity in enhancing mental health or a preventive intervention in reducing risks is hard to prove. If the issue being targeted is a social one, for example decent housing or education, as opposed to a narrower

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Given ‘common-sense’ wisdom that violence is required to stop violence, any serious investigation into unarmed civilian protection (UCP) must first address and interrogate widespread beliefs about the protective value of violence, and then identify and explore the range of mechanisms by which nonviolence, in the form of UCP, is capable of preventing violence and protecting civilians. This chapter first examines how collective armed security-seeking practices – on the part of anyone from armed activists to military forces – are unreliable and often generate

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