Global social securitypolicy
The idea that every person on the globe should be covered by social protection seems
to be self-evident, but it is rather recent. This chapter explains the meaning of the terms
‘social protection’ and ‘social security’, and how social security has evolved historically.
Global social security has a complex history, with distinct histories in the Global North,
in the Global South, and in global arenas with international organisations as key actors,
and these histories are intertwined. Social
Social securitypolicies in 2005
2005 has seen three Secretaries of State for Work and Pensions – Alan
Johnson, David Blunkett and latterly John Hutton. The year also saw a
May General Election with the return to office of the Labour Party,
albeit with a reduced majority. There has been particular concern over
the delivery of the tax credit scheme, leading to both administrative and
policy reform announcements within the year. The build-up to the Welfare
Reform Green Paper, discussed and delayed through much of 2005 but
The Chinese government’s abolition of communes and the changing nature
of work units from multiple caring institutions to pure economic units led to
increasing numbers of unsupported older people, and unemployed workers
suffering from poverty. Over the past three decades, the Chinese government
has attempted to build a new social security system to secure social stability
and promote economic development. This chapter discusses:
• the welfare functions of communes and work units before China
has established a clear position of dominance and secured the upper hand vis-à-vis the other regional claimants, and has put non-regional actors, without a direct claim on the SCS, on the defensive.
Accordingly, the SCS has become one of the anchors, if not the leading anchor, of China’s newly assertive foreign and securitypolicy behaviour. 5 The combination of its importance, its longitude – running well over a decade – and its success, makes the SCS an ideal case study of its foreign and securitypolicy, notably under Xi. It offers clues and lessons on Chinese
Issues in social securitypolicy
The evaluation of the impact of social policy usually depends on its aims. That
is difficult to do for social security. Social security does not have a single set of
aims, or aims that tend in a particular direction; there are many, and in the context
of particular benefits, conflicting objectives often jockey together for priority.
This part of the book focuses, instead, on a limited but important range of
evaluative criteria, principally concerned with the question of whether the
system offers value
Policy analysis and normative theory: with a
focus on social securitypolicies
It has long been noted that public policy in Japan is ad hoc in nature, unsystematic
and inconsistent. Why has this situation persisted for so long? Much debate has already
been devoted to this very question. Causes that have often been cited include the
existence of vertical divisions in hierarchical administrative organisations and the
inability by the ruling cabinets and political parties to integrate those divisions.
Of course, these
Social securitypolicy and low wages
in austere times
This chapter considers state responses to low wages. It develops from the
view that low wages are economically problematic for both individuals
and the state, as they create dilemmas related to social reproduction,
and financial incentives to take waged work. As the solutions to these
dilemmas have been expressed differently at various moments in England
and later in the UK, the chapter places policies aimed at addressing
low wages in their historical context. It traces
, 2013 ; Acharya, 2016 ) both through internal skirmishes among EU member states as well as by external challenges on the level of international politics (Gurol and Rodríguez, 2020), the EU’s foreign and securitypolicy can still be understood, above all, as one that prioritizes normativity ( Eriksen, 2014 ; Keukeleire and Delreux, 2014 ; Sjursen and Rosén, 2017).
China, in contrast, is most commonly considered an inherently pragmatic and rationalist actor, following a logic of consequentialism. Its foreign policy model appears to be opposed to the normative
This volume brings together international experts to provide fresh perspectives on geopolitical concerns in the South China Sea.
The book considers the interests and security strategies of each of the nations with a claim to ownership and jurisdiction in the Sea. Examining contexts including the region’s natural resources and China’s behaviour, the book also assesses the motivations and approaches of other states in Asia and further afield.
This is an accessible, even-handed and comprehensive examination of current and future rivalries and challenges in one of the most strategically important and militarized maritime regions of the world.