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35 TWO Vulnerabilities Vulnerable (adjective): exposed to the possibility of being attacked or harmed, either physically or emotionally. (Oxford English Dictionary) This is the first of two chapters exploring the ways in which young people and professionals made sense of why sexual exploitation happens. In this chapter, attention is given to the wider context surrounding young people’s experiences and why or how it is that some young people are vulnerable to being sexually exploited while others are not. ‘Vulnerability’, ‘risk’ and ‘how young people

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‘Violence is the main language on the streets, violence is a way of communicating on the streets, it’s the way we send messages, it’s a way of getting respect, it’s a way of getting paid, it’s a way of surviving.’ (Jordan) Where there is protest masculinity – an exaggerated and aggressive form of masculinity performance expressed as a response to marginalization – there is also a vulnerable masculinity. They are two sides of the same coin. This was brought to the fore in the narratives throughout this book. Protest masculinity is constructed as a strategy

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107 7 Police outsourcing and labour force vulnerability Roxanna Dehaghani and Adam White Introduction The post-financial crisis politics of austerity have required police forces in England and Wales to make unprecedented savings at a rapid pace. In response, some forces have turned to the market, outsourcing back office and front-line functions to commercial enterprises which promise to deliver the same service (or more) for less. This trend has unsurprisingly captured the attention of policing scholars who have started to explore attendant issues of

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71 FOUR Vulnerability and the ‘will to trust’ Dependence, choice and trust A number of questions have appeared, more or less explicitly, within the preceding chapters pertaining to a tension between processes of trust formation and the extent of choice involved within these. One example of this was in Chapter Three where we followed Barbalet in noting a ‘forced option’ (Barbalet, 2009: 372) aspect to trust, as was made evident in comments by participants such as ‘You have to [trust] in some ways’. In Chapter One, we suggested that some degree of choice was

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71 FOUR Vulnerability management Vulnerability is something that’s always there at the forefront; it’s always in your mind. (Manager, welfare service for ‘vulnerable’ children) ... the term ‘vulnerability’ is common parlance. (Senior manager, Youth Offending Service [YOS]) ... it seems like it’s the current buzz word. (Project worker, welfare service for ‘vulnerable’ children) Introduction Classifications of vulnerability now shape a range of interventions with people who are seen to require special care or behavioural regulation. Concerns about and

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compensate dissatisfaction with its social fragmentation. This chapter maintains that both perspectives, being contemporary, feed off one another and constitute a temporal context that expresses precariousness as an eminently temporal experience of vulnerability. This living of time could not be socially constituted without the emergence of an abstract concept of time: time as disentangled from events. Stemming from late medieval to early modern times, this understanding of time has since been consolidated by the progress of industrialized production and the transformation

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125 SIX Vulnerable identities? Introduction While the concept of vulnerability has come to play a significant role in policies, practices and discourses related to disadvantage and social difficulty, how supposedly vulnerable people might understand, construct or respond to being classified in this way has rarely been given consideration. Resistance and receptiveness to ‘vulnerable identities’ (see McLaughlin, 2012) are little understood, with attention to the implications of vulnerability rationales tending to remain more focused at the level of

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This chapter will help you to understand: how vulnerability is socially constructed rather than being natural or inevitable; how the discourse of vulnerability undermines children’s abilities. 8.1 A discourse of children as naturally vulnerable Note It is quite easy for us to point to things which underpin children’s vulnerability. Children are smaller and weaker. They are less worldly wise and may not understand situations fully or in the same way that adults would. Because of this, children are seen to lack power. They are weaker and

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is central to debates about the value of understanding hardship in terms of ‘vulnerability’. Critical scholars have shown how ‘vulnerability’ operates in social policy to caste certain social groups – such as people with disabilities, queer youth and Aboriginal people – as at risk by virtue of their minority identity. They argue that the idea of ‘vulnerability’ works in tandem with ‘risk’ and ‘resilience’ to define social problems in terms of individual characteristics rather than social conditions. ‘Vulnerable populations’ become the target of interventions to

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Rose’s sons and daughter in passing at hospital and home. On one occasion Rose’s daughter shared some marketing literature for two local, ‘very sheltered’ housing schemes. She had visited the schemes and appraised them on behalf of her mum. Later it was acknowledged that Rose needed a greater level of care – “on-site nurses; 24 hours a day” – and these schemes had only one daytime nurse, and were therefore deemed “no good, if Mum falls”. Regulation/good practice requires more than one nurse to lift a vulnerable person. Ultimately the scheme managers advised that

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