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I Aboard the White Star Line’s magisterial ship the SS Olympic , Sastri and his team of advisers, Girija Shankar Bajpai (secretary), Geoffrey Corbett (civil adviser) and Colonel K. Wigram (military adviser), left Southampton on 26 October 1921. The Washington Conference was convened by America’s President Warren G. Harding to discuss two sets of issues: disarmament and affairs concerning the Pacific. Harding had originally invited a combined delegation of the British Empire, aware that his predecessor, Woodrow Wilson, had been criticized by the republicans

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dismissed such pronouncements as so much rhetorical hot air. It was perhaps George Kennan, the ‘father of containment’, who more than anybody else, articulated the most persuasive critique of what he termed this ‘diplomacy of dilettantism’.3 In a far-reaching series of lectures delivered in the intellectual home of realism at the University of Chicago, Kennan did not pull his punches when it came to attacking those American leaders of the past – Woodrow Wilson most notably – who had always been inclined (he believed) to substitute hard thinking about the balance of

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’. The war was thrust upon the world by short-sighted politicians. It was left to the ‘scholar-statesman’, with ‘his high character, his liberal culture, and persuasive force and humane sympathies’, to lead the world back to peace. Woodrow Wilson in America, Tomas Garrigue Masaryk in Bohemia, Herbert A.L. Fisher and Arthur Balfour in England, Gustav Stresemann in Germany, Aristide Briand in France, Benedetto Croce in Italy, among others, had furnished ‘a lofty direction and a beneficial purpose’ to public life. No wonder the scholar was ‘raised to exalted positions of

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must come from among elected representatives, and the Congress asked the government to send Tilak, Gandhi and Syed Hasan Imam as India’s delegates to the Paris Peace Conference. The Congress also tapped into Woodrow Wilson’s endorsement of self-determination, and proclaimed that the principles of self-determination should be applied to India as ‘a progressive nation’; accordingly the session issued a Declaration of Rights. 64 The Congress’ claim to self-determination rested on a firm resolve that India was civilized enough to be considered ready for self

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V.S. Srinivasa Sastri and the Making of Liberal Internationalism
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V.S. Srinivasa Sastri was a celebrated Indian politician and diplomat in the early twentieth century. Despite being hailed as the ‘very voice of international conscience’, he is now a largely forgotten figure.

This book rehabilitates Sastri and offers a diplomatic biography of his years as India’s roving ambassador in the 1920s. It examines his involvement in key conferences and agreements, as well as his achievements in advocating for racial equality and securing the rights of Indians both at home and abroad. It also illuminates the darker side of being a native diplomat, including the risk of legitimizing the colonial project and the contradictions of being treated as an equal on the world stage while lacking equality at home.

In retrieving the legacy of Sastri, the book shows that liberal internationalism is not the preserve of western powers and actors – where it too often represents imperialism by other means – but a commitment to social progress fought at multiple sites and by many protagonists.

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All general theories must, as theories, keep modestly in the background, not in open argument only, but even in our own minds. Woodrow Wilson Introduction Academic and political approaches to sustainable development, governance and public administration reflect a diverse range of values and disciplinary lenses. This makes it nigh impossible to find a common theoretical frame for exploring the question of what lessons sustainable development governance has for bureaucracy. Any single framing risks ignoring important debates and viewpoints. Applying

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167 L LEAGUE OF NATIONS The League of Nations (hereafter called the League) was an international organisation created in 1920 in the aftermath of the First World War. It was founded as a result of the Paris Peace Conference in 1919 and was the initial idea of Woodrow Wilson, the then President of the US. The League was established to encourage disarmament, discourage aggression between nations, maintain peace through collective security and protect minority groups through international law. Thus, its main activities were: international peace and security

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If we are to put in new boilers and to mend the fires which drive our government machinery, we must not leave the old wheels and joints and valves and bands to creek and buzz and clatter as best they may at bidding of new forces. Woodrow Wilson Woodrow Wilson used a very mechanical metaphor for his call for fresh approaches to public administration at the close of the 19th century. This book calls instead for a socio-ecological expression of the tradition of civic republicanism as its pathway to transformatory change for the 21st century, one in which

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Daron Acemoglu and James Robinson are among the leading figures in contemporary American political economics. Their book Why Nations Fail (2012) was shortlisted for the 2012 Financial Times and Goldman Sachs Business Book of the Year and included in the Washington Post ’s ‘ten best books’ for the same year. Their previous book, Economic Origins of Dictatorship and Democracy ( 2005 ), was similarly well received, being awarded the 2007 American Political Science Association’s Woodrow Wilson Award. Allan Drazen called their book ‘truly path

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Sastri and Bajpai arrived in London in mid-February 1922 to a hostile, anti-India public and political mood.1 Montagu and Reading were up against a wall of opposition for their supposedly soft treatment of Gandhi’s non-cooperation movement. The boycott of the Prince of Wales’ visit by Indian nationalists inflated this resentment into a full-blown rage. Reading was accused of dithering for far too long over arresting Gandhi, while Montagu faced a motion of censure in the parliament, where he was openly slammed for a ‘criminal betrayal of every white man and white woman in India’.2 The criticism directed at the two Jews came laced with undercurrents of anti-Semitic vitriol. Meanwhile, as will be seen in the next chapter, Churchill had made one of his regular about-turns on the Kenya policy and announced that the Kenyan Highlands would remain reserved for whites, effectively ruining the work done over the several months of Montagu’s negotiations with him. This prompted Charles Andrews, Gandhi’s friend and a champion of the rights of overseas Indians, to call for Reading’s and Montagu’s resignations. Montagu, who always appeared eager to step under the guillotine, had also been vocal against Lloyd George’s Turkey policy, much to the Prime Minister’s annoyance. Sastri found Montagu ‘annoyed, weary and querulous’.3

Amid all this, Sastri had a moment of personal glory; he was sworn into the Privy Council on 5 March, the third Indian to be given the honour, after Syeed Amir Ali and Lord Sinha.4 Sastri and Bajpai left for India soon afterwards, and while they were en route two events of history-shaping importance took place.

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