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33 TWO The growth of xeno-racism and islamophobia in Britain Liz Fekete In this chapter Fekete looks at the growth of ‘xeno-racism’ – a ‘non-colour-coded’ racism that is based on conceptions of immigration status, culture and religion. Racism is not a static concept. Within social work understandings of ‘race’ and racism we have often utilised Peter Fryer’s (1984) important three-fold distinction of the racisms of slavery, empire and post-war migration. Martin Barker (1981) in the early 1980s was already arguing that there was clear evidence of a ‘new

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focus on anti-racism shifted to anti-oppression and on to a concern with difference and diversity – and with this shift the focus on the structural and institutional basis of racism was marginalised. Fekete presents her work on what she, and others at the Institute of Race Relations and within the journal Race and Class, term the rise of ‘xeno-racism’. Fekete’s point is that the politics of race is never static, but shifts according to a mix of political, economic and social factors. The most virulent form of racism in the present period is one that targets

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Contemporary issues and debates

Without a doubt, structural and institutionalised racism is still present in Britain and Europe, a factor that social work education and training has been slow to acknowledge.

In this timely new book, Lavalette and Penketh reveal that racism towards Britain’s minority ethnic groups has undergone a process of change. They affirm the importance of social work to address issues of ‘race’ and racism in education and training by presenting a critical review of a this demanding aspect of social work practice.

Original in its approach, and with diverse perspectives from key practitioners in the field, the authors examine contemporary anti-racism, including racism towards Eastern European migrants, Roma people and asylum seekers. It also considers the implications of contemporary racism for current practice.

This is essential reading for anyone academically or professionally interested in social work, and the developments in this field of study post 9/11.

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This book draws together a range of writers to consider aspects of ‘race’, racism and contemporary social work. It considers the development of anti-racist social work theory and practice within the shifting terrain of the politics of ‘race’ within modern Britain. Included in the collection are chapters looking at developments within anti-racist social work theory and practice, including discussion of the impact of neo-liberalism on black and Asian communities, the strengths and problems associated with notions of ‘cultural competencies’, the development of an analysis of ‘xeno-racism’ and considerations of the role of black and Asian workers as ‘catalysers’ of change. Significantly for a text on anti-racist social work and there are chapters on anti-Semitism, anti-Roma racism and Islamophobia. Further chapters include discussion of asylum-seeking young people, debates around the politics of ‘street-grooming’, a qualified defence of ‘multiculturalism, an analysis of the impact of austerity measures on services for minority communities, a policy analysis of the implications of the ‘Prevent’ counter-terrorism strategy and its implications for welfare workers, and an analysis of the role of migrant workers within the social care sector. Collectively the book opens up significant areas of debate and analysis within social work that students, practitioners and researchers need to fully engage with. It intends to act as a stimulus for further research and debate in this important area of social work theory and practice.

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191 Global Discourse • vol 9 • no 1 • 191–93 © Bristol University Press 2019 • Online ISSN 2043-7897 https://doi.org/10.1332/204378919X15470487645411 Themed Issue: The Limits of EUrope: Identities, Spaces, Values Part III: Limits to European Space and Borders REPLY Response to ‘Migration, solidarity and the limits of Europe’ by Martina Tazzioli and William Walters Liz Fekete, liz@irr.org.uk Director, Institute of Race Relations, UK Key words shrinking space • xeno-racism • nativism • Facilitators Directive • search-and- rescue To cite this article

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shared cultural histories at a collective level (for example diaspora) and the culturalisation of politics and homogenising all cultures under the artificial umbrella of one unified cultural frame. In so far as Sweta Rajan-Rankin 210 multiculturalism is defined outside the realm of whiteness, as a self-declaration of cultural characteristics unifying a community (Hall, 1990), multiculturalism can lead to a deepening understanding of racism, not a denial of the same. Xeno-racism: Islamophobia and anti-Semitism Within the post-racist framework, researchers have

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reduces ‘non-natives’ to ‘swarms’, ‘invaders’ or, as Italy’s far-right interior minister Matteo Salvini puts it, Africa’s ‘new slaves’, that forms the backcloth to the authors’ concerns. The term xeno-racism, first deployed by A. Sivanandan ( Sivanandan, 2001 ), is used to describe a virulent form of racism meted out to foreigners and its institutionalisation within law and policy through specific measures that segregate asylum seekers and migrants from the rest of society, strip them of human rights and render them vulnerable to deportation. While the authors are

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-religious-communal identity-based politics. At the professional level anti-racist social work has been unable to evolve models to reflect the shifting discourses of ‘race’ and the emergence of new or ‘xeno-racism’ that is not necessarily built on black/white racial binaries (Sivanandan 2006; see also Fekete, Chapter Two, this volume). And, at the theoretical level, there has been the legacy of the turn to postmodernism and, by some, the repudiation of Marxism as the basis for understanding the relationship between lived experience, history and oppression. The chapter begins with a

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racism in contemporary Britain. Given that racisms continually evolve through time and space in relation to changing social, economic and political contexts, the chapter traces and situates key shifts in racialised discourse, considering emerging forms of racism such as Islamophobia and ‘xeno-racism’ ( Fekete, 2009 ) alongside the persistence of established forms of hostility and discrimination such as ‘anti-Black racism’ ( Anthias and Yuval-Davis, 1992 ) and antisemitism. The final part of the chapter examines contemporary political mobilisations around ‘race’. The

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racism in contemporary Britain. Given that racisms continually evolve through time and space in relation to changing social, economic and political contexts, the chapter traces and situates key shifts in racialised discourse, considering emerging forms of racism such as Islamophobia and ‘xeno-racism’ ( Fekete, 2009 ) alongside the persistence of established forms of hostility and discrimination such as ‘anti-Black racism’ ( Anthias and Yuval-Davis, 1992 ) and antisemitism. The final part of the chapter examines contemporary political mobilisations around ‘race’. The

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